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Urinary metabonomics for diagnosis of depression in hepatitis B virus-infected patients.

Hou LJ, Wang HW, Wei XX, Duan SP, Zhuo Y, Song XW, Shen BS - Iran Red Crescent Med J (2015)

Bottom Line: Depression is concomitantly presented in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-infected patients and decreases these patients' quality of life.These findings suggest that NMR-based urinary metabonomics approach might be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of depression in HBV-infected patients and the six potential biomarkers could be helpful for developing an objective diagnostic method.Limited by the number of recruited subjects, future studies are required to validate our conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is concomitantly presented in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-infected patients and decreases these patients' quality of life. However, there are no laboratory-based methods to objectively diagnose this disorder.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of urinary metabolites in depressed HBV-infected patients.

Patients and methods: In this study, 81 depressed HBV-infected patients, 68 non-depressed HBV-infected patients and 64 Healthy Controls (HC) were recruited. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based urinary metabonomic method was used to characterize the urinary metabolic profiling of depressed and non-depressed subjects.

Results: Seventeen differential urinary metabolites responsible for discriminating depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC were identified. Among these metabolites, pyruvate, isobutyrate, N-methylnicotinamide, α-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and malonate were identified as potential biomarkers for diagnosing depression in HBV-infected patients. A combined panel of these potential biomarkers could effectively discriminate depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC, with an average accuracy of 89.6% in the training set and a predictive accuracy of 86.4% in the test set.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that NMR-based urinary metabonomics approach might be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of depression in HBV-infected patients and the six potential biomarkers could be helpful for developing an objective diagnostic method. Limited by the number of recruited subjects, future studies are required to validate our conclusions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

T-Predicted Scatter Plot from the OPLS-DA ModelA, orange, predicted HB; violet, predicted HC; B, dark-red, predicted HB-D.
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fig18852: T-Predicted Scatter Plot from the OPLS-DA ModelA, orange, predicted HB; violet, predicted HC; B, dark-red, predicted HB-D.

Mentions: The OPLS-DA model was built using the training set (38 HC, 40 non-depressed and 53 depressed HBV-infected patients) to select the differential urinary metabolites responsible for discriminating depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC. The score plots of the OPLS-DA model showed that depressed HBV-infected patients were significantly different from subjects in the other two groups with little overlap (Figure 2 A). Meanwhile, the positive values of R2X (61.0%), R2Y (64.3%) and Q2Y (57.8%) implied a robust metabolic difference between depressed HBV-infected patients and non-depressed subjects. Moreover, the results of permutation test demonstrated that this OPLS-DA model was valid, positive and not over-fitted (Figure 2 B). In order to independently validate the reliability of the constructed OPLS-DA model, a test set (26 HC, 28 non-depressed and 28 depressed HBV-infected patients) was used. The corresponding results showed that the OPLS-DA model could correctly predict depressed HBV-infected patients (Figure 3 A), non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC subjects (Figure 3 B). By analyzing the coefficient loading plots, 17 differential urinary metabolites (/r/ > 0.273) that contributed to the discrimination of depressed HBV-infected patients were obtained. Among these metabolites, the levels of five metabolites (acetoacetate, glycerophosphocholine, malonate, phenylacetylglycine and p-hydroxyphenylacetate) were lower in depressed HBV-infected patients, and the levels of 12 metabolites (isobutyrate, acetone, α-hydroxybutyrate, glycolate, β-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate, trimethylamine, dimethylglycine, α-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, acetamide and N-methylnicotinamide) were higher in depressed HBV-infected patients. Meanwhile, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to confirm the metabolic changes identified by the OPLS-DA model, and the 17 metabolites still remained significantly changed (Table 2).


Urinary metabonomics for diagnosis of depression in hepatitis B virus-infected patients.

Hou LJ, Wang HW, Wei XX, Duan SP, Zhuo Y, Song XW, Shen BS - Iran Red Crescent Med J (2015)

T-Predicted Scatter Plot from the OPLS-DA ModelA, orange, predicted HB; violet, predicted HC; B, dark-red, predicted HB-D.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4443390&req=5

fig18852: T-Predicted Scatter Plot from the OPLS-DA ModelA, orange, predicted HB; violet, predicted HC; B, dark-red, predicted HB-D.
Mentions: The OPLS-DA model was built using the training set (38 HC, 40 non-depressed and 53 depressed HBV-infected patients) to select the differential urinary metabolites responsible for discriminating depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC. The score plots of the OPLS-DA model showed that depressed HBV-infected patients were significantly different from subjects in the other two groups with little overlap (Figure 2 A). Meanwhile, the positive values of R2X (61.0%), R2Y (64.3%) and Q2Y (57.8%) implied a robust metabolic difference between depressed HBV-infected patients and non-depressed subjects. Moreover, the results of permutation test demonstrated that this OPLS-DA model was valid, positive and not over-fitted (Figure 2 B). In order to independently validate the reliability of the constructed OPLS-DA model, a test set (26 HC, 28 non-depressed and 28 depressed HBV-infected patients) was used. The corresponding results showed that the OPLS-DA model could correctly predict depressed HBV-infected patients (Figure 3 A), non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC subjects (Figure 3 B). By analyzing the coefficient loading plots, 17 differential urinary metabolites (/r/ > 0.273) that contributed to the discrimination of depressed HBV-infected patients were obtained. Among these metabolites, the levels of five metabolites (acetoacetate, glycerophosphocholine, malonate, phenylacetylglycine and p-hydroxyphenylacetate) were lower in depressed HBV-infected patients, and the levels of 12 metabolites (isobutyrate, acetone, α-hydroxybutyrate, glycolate, β-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate, trimethylamine, dimethylglycine, α-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, acetamide and N-methylnicotinamide) were higher in depressed HBV-infected patients. Meanwhile, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to confirm the metabolic changes identified by the OPLS-DA model, and the 17 metabolites still remained significantly changed (Table 2).

Bottom Line: Depression is concomitantly presented in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-infected patients and decreases these patients' quality of life.These findings suggest that NMR-based urinary metabonomics approach might be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of depression in HBV-infected patients and the six potential biomarkers could be helpful for developing an objective diagnostic method.Limited by the number of recruited subjects, future studies are required to validate our conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is concomitantly presented in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-infected patients and decreases these patients' quality of life. However, there are no laboratory-based methods to objectively diagnose this disorder.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of urinary metabolites in depressed HBV-infected patients.

Patients and methods: In this study, 81 depressed HBV-infected patients, 68 non-depressed HBV-infected patients and 64 Healthy Controls (HC) were recruited. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based urinary metabonomic method was used to characterize the urinary metabolic profiling of depressed and non-depressed subjects.

Results: Seventeen differential urinary metabolites responsible for discriminating depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC were identified. Among these metabolites, pyruvate, isobutyrate, N-methylnicotinamide, α-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and malonate were identified as potential biomarkers for diagnosing depression in HBV-infected patients. A combined panel of these potential biomarkers could effectively discriminate depressed HBV-infected patients from non-depressed HBV-infected patients and HC, with an average accuracy of 89.6% in the training set and a predictive accuracy of 86.4% in the test set.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that NMR-based urinary metabonomics approach might be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of depression in HBV-infected patients and the six potential biomarkers could be helpful for developing an objective diagnostic method. Limited by the number of recruited subjects, future studies are required to validate our conclusions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus