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The venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa in the human penis.

Hsu GL, Hung YP, Tsai MH, Chang HC, Liu SP, Molodysky E, Hsu MC - Arab J Urol (2013)

Bottom Line: The remaining drainage proportion was 15.6 (14.1-18.1)%.We conclude that the venous drainage system of the corpora cavernosa is much more complex than the previous depictions of it, and the consequent focus on a single DDV.This also shows the independent role of each venous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microsurgical Potency Reconstruction and Research Center, Taipei, Taiwan ; Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the drainage proportions from the corpora cavernosa in defrosted human cadavers, as the veins related to penile erection were recently depicted to comprise the deep dorsal vein (DDV), a pair of cavernous veins (CVs) and two pairs of para-arterial veins (PAVs), as opposed to a single DDV between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea of the human penis.

Materials and methods: With no formalin fixation, 10 defrosted male human cadavers were used for this study. After injecting a 10% solution of colloid, and with the intracavernous pressure (ICP) fixed at 90 mmHg, the perfusion rate was recorded before and after the DDV, CVs and PAVs were removed, respectively. Finally, measurements were again recorded after penile arterial ligation. Cavernosography was used if required.

Results: The mean (range) perfusion rate for maintaining the ICP at 90 mmHg was 30.2 (15.5-90.8) mL/min, whereas the arterial perfusion rate was 2.8 (0.3-3.9) mL/min. The mean (range) drainage proportion of the corpora cavernosa was 60.5 (50.3-69.7)%, 11.9 (5.8-22.9)% and 11.4 (5.2-15.0)% via the DDV, CVs and PAVs, respectively. The remaining drainage proportion was 15.6 (14.1-18.1)%. This study shows the separate drainage contributions of the DDV, CVs and PAVs to the corpora cavernosa of the human penis.

Conclusion: We conclude that the venous drainage system of the corpora cavernosa is much more complex than the previous depictions of it, and the consequent focus on a single DDV. This also shows the independent role of each venous system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cavernosograms taken in the cadaver of a 67-year-old man. (A) While the tip of a 19-G scalp needle (black asterisk) was positioned in the corpus cavernosum (white asterisk) the DDV (black arrows) is shown after injection with the contrast medium. Note that the femoral vein (cross) was full of blood clots in this defrosted cadaver. (B) Those venous tissues on Panel A were difficult to see after the PAVs were removed and the corpora cavernosa (white asterisk) was better opacified.
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f0015: Cavernosograms taken in the cadaver of a 67-year-old man. (A) While the tip of a 19-G scalp needle (black asterisk) was positioned in the corpus cavernosum (white asterisk) the DDV (black arrows) is shown after injection with the contrast medium. Note that the femoral vein (cross) was full of blood clots in this defrosted cadaver. (B) Those venous tissues on Panel A were difficult to see after the PAVs were removed and the corpora cavernosa (white asterisk) was better opacified.

Mentions: One needle was connected to an infusion pump (ML172 peristaltic pump and ML 175 STH pump controller, AD Instruments Pty Ltd., Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) and was used to inject a 10% colloid solution (Haes-steril, Fresenius-Klinik, Bad Homburg, Germany) into the corpora cavernosa, whereas the other needle was used to monitor the intracavernous pressure (ICP) via an intravenous set connected to a negative-feedback pressure-monitoring system. The perfusion rate was recorded (Fig. 2) while the ICP was set at 90 mmHg before (overall intact reading) and after the DDV, CVs and PAVs were meticulously removed, in sequential order, until they were absent from the corpora cavernosa. Cavernosography was used when required (Fig. 3).


The venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa in the human penis.

Hsu GL, Hung YP, Tsai MH, Chang HC, Liu SP, Molodysky E, Hsu MC - Arab J Urol (2013)

Cavernosograms taken in the cadaver of a 67-year-old man. (A) While the tip of a 19-G scalp needle (black asterisk) was positioned in the corpus cavernosum (white asterisk) the DDV (black arrows) is shown after injection with the contrast medium. Note that the femoral vein (cross) was full of blood clots in this defrosted cadaver. (B) Those venous tissues on Panel A were difficult to see after the PAVs were removed and the corpora cavernosa (white asterisk) was better opacified.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4443007&req=5

f0015: Cavernosograms taken in the cadaver of a 67-year-old man. (A) While the tip of a 19-G scalp needle (black asterisk) was positioned in the corpus cavernosum (white asterisk) the DDV (black arrows) is shown after injection with the contrast medium. Note that the femoral vein (cross) was full of blood clots in this defrosted cadaver. (B) Those venous tissues on Panel A were difficult to see after the PAVs were removed and the corpora cavernosa (white asterisk) was better opacified.
Mentions: One needle was connected to an infusion pump (ML172 peristaltic pump and ML 175 STH pump controller, AD Instruments Pty Ltd., Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) and was used to inject a 10% colloid solution (Haes-steril, Fresenius-Klinik, Bad Homburg, Germany) into the corpora cavernosa, whereas the other needle was used to monitor the intracavernous pressure (ICP) via an intravenous set connected to a negative-feedback pressure-monitoring system. The perfusion rate was recorded (Fig. 2) while the ICP was set at 90 mmHg before (overall intact reading) and after the DDV, CVs and PAVs were meticulously removed, in sequential order, until they were absent from the corpora cavernosa. Cavernosography was used when required (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: The remaining drainage proportion was 15.6 (14.1-18.1)%.We conclude that the venous drainage system of the corpora cavernosa is much more complex than the previous depictions of it, and the consequent focus on a single DDV.This also shows the independent role of each venous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Microsurgical Potency Reconstruction and Research Center, Taipei, Taiwan ; Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the drainage proportions from the corpora cavernosa in defrosted human cadavers, as the veins related to penile erection were recently depicted to comprise the deep dorsal vein (DDV), a pair of cavernous veins (CVs) and two pairs of para-arterial veins (PAVs), as opposed to a single DDV between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea of the human penis.

Materials and methods: With no formalin fixation, 10 defrosted male human cadavers were used for this study. After injecting a 10% solution of colloid, and with the intracavernous pressure (ICP) fixed at 90 mmHg, the perfusion rate was recorded before and after the DDV, CVs and PAVs were removed, respectively. Finally, measurements were again recorded after penile arterial ligation. Cavernosography was used if required.

Results: The mean (range) perfusion rate for maintaining the ICP at 90 mmHg was 30.2 (15.5-90.8) mL/min, whereas the arterial perfusion rate was 2.8 (0.3-3.9) mL/min. The mean (range) drainage proportion of the corpora cavernosa was 60.5 (50.3-69.7)%, 11.9 (5.8-22.9)% and 11.4 (5.2-15.0)% via the DDV, CVs and PAVs, respectively. The remaining drainage proportion was 15.6 (14.1-18.1)%. This study shows the separate drainage contributions of the DDV, CVs and PAVs to the corpora cavernosa of the human penis.

Conclusion: We conclude that the venous drainage system of the corpora cavernosa is much more complex than the previous depictions of it, and the consequent focus on a single DDV. This also shows the independent role of each venous system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus