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Sex Differences in the Excess Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: Potential Explanations and Clinical Implications.

Peters SA, Huxley RR, Sattar N, Woodward M - Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Strong evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes confers a stronger excess risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men; with women having a 27 % higher relative risk of stroke and a 44 % higher relative risk of coronary heart disease compared with men.Some of the excess risk may be the result of a sex disparity in the management and treatment of diabetes, to the detriment of women.However, accruing evidence suggests that real biological differences between men and women underpin the excess risk of diabetes-related cardiovascular risk in women such that there is a greater decline in risk factor status in women than in men in the transition from normoglycemia to overt diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The George Institute for Global Health, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, 34 Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BD UK.

ABSTRACT

Strong evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes confers a stronger excess risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men; with women having a 27 % higher relative risk of stroke and a 44 % higher relative risk of coronary heart disease compared with men. The mechanisms that underpin these sex differences in the associations between diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk are not fully understood. Some of the excess risk may be the result of a sex disparity in the management and treatment of diabetes, to the detriment of women. However, accruing evidence suggests that real biological differences between men and women underpin the excess risk of diabetes-related cardiovascular risk in women such that there is a greater decline in risk factor status in women than in men in the transition from normoglycemia to overt diabetes. This greater risk factor decline appears to be associated with women having to put on more weight than men, and thus attain a higher body mass index, to develop diabetes. Further studies addressing the mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the excess risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes are needed to improve the prevention and management of diabetes in clinical practise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage growth in age-standardised diabetes prevalence, 1980–2008, by region. Reproduced, with the permission of the publisher, from reference [3]
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Fig2: Percentage growth in age-standardised diabetes prevalence, 1980–2008, by region. Reproduced, with the permission of the publisher, from reference [3]

Mentions: Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern; 382 million individuals or 8.3 % of the adult population worldwide have diabetes, and an additional 175 million people are unaware that they may have diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries; countries in Oceania, North Africa and the Middle East have the highest prevalence of diabetes, with rates in these countries ranging from 21–25 % in men and 21–32 % in women (Fig. 1) [1, 2]. The prevalence of diabetes is expected to rise by 55 % to 592 million individuals by 2035 [1]; whilst much of this increase is driven by population growth and ageing, other key contributors are the rapid growth in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the increasing lack of physical activity. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes vary substantially between regions and sexes, which is inherent to substantial biological, socioeconomic and societal differences (Fig. 2) [2, 3]. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 85 to 95 % of all diabetes, with the remainder comprising mainly of type 1 diabetes—one of the most common autoimmune diseases.Fig. 1


Sex Differences in the Excess Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: Potential Explanations and Clinical Implications.

Peters SA, Huxley RR, Sattar N, Woodward M - Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep (2015)

Percentage growth in age-standardised diabetes prevalence, 1980–2008, by region. Reproduced, with the permission of the publisher, from reference [3]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4442131&req=5

Fig2: Percentage growth in age-standardised diabetes prevalence, 1980–2008, by region. Reproduced, with the permission of the publisher, from reference [3]
Mentions: Diabetes mellitus is a major health concern; 382 million individuals or 8.3 % of the adult population worldwide have diabetes, and an additional 175 million people are unaware that they may have diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries; countries in Oceania, North Africa and the Middle East have the highest prevalence of diabetes, with rates in these countries ranging from 21–25 % in men and 21–32 % in women (Fig. 1) [1, 2]. The prevalence of diabetes is expected to rise by 55 % to 592 million individuals by 2035 [1]; whilst much of this increase is driven by population growth and ageing, other key contributors are the rapid growth in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the increasing lack of physical activity. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes vary substantially between regions and sexes, which is inherent to substantial biological, socioeconomic and societal differences (Fig. 2) [2, 3]. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 85 to 95 % of all diabetes, with the remainder comprising mainly of type 1 diabetes—one of the most common autoimmune diseases.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Strong evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes confers a stronger excess risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men; with women having a 27 % higher relative risk of stroke and a 44 % higher relative risk of coronary heart disease compared with men.Some of the excess risk may be the result of a sex disparity in the management and treatment of diabetes, to the detriment of women.However, accruing evidence suggests that real biological differences between men and women underpin the excess risk of diabetes-related cardiovascular risk in women such that there is a greater decline in risk factor status in women than in men in the transition from normoglycemia to overt diabetes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The George Institute for Global Health, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, 34 Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BD UK.

ABSTRACT

Strong evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes confers a stronger excess risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men; with women having a 27 % higher relative risk of stroke and a 44 % higher relative risk of coronary heart disease compared with men. The mechanisms that underpin these sex differences in the associations between diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk are not fully understood. Some of the excess risk may be the result of a sex disparity in the management and treatment of diabetes, to the detriment of women. However, accruing evidence suggests that real biological differences between men and women underpin the excess risk of diabetes-related cardiovascular risk in women such that there is a greater decline in risk factor status in women than in men in the transition from normoglycemia to overt diabetes. This greater risk factor decline appears to be associated with women having to put on more weight than men, and thus attain a higher body mass index, to develop diabetes. Further studies addressing the mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the excess risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with diabetes are needed to improve the prevention and management of diabetes in clinical practise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus