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Fat emulsion intragastric stability and droplet size modulate gastrointestinal responses and subsequent food intake in young adults.

Hussein MO, Hoad CL, Wright J, Singh G, Stephenson MC, Cox EF, Placidi E, Pritchard SE, Costigan C, Ribeiro H, Ciampi E, Nandi A, Hedges N, Sanderson P, Peters HP, Rayment P, Spiller RC, Gowland PA, Marciani L - J. Nutr. (2015)

Bottom Line: The Coarse+LBG treatment (preventing creaming in the stomach) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 12% higher gastric volume over time (P < 0.001), increased small bowel water content (SBWC) by 11% (P < 0.01), slowed appearance of the (13)C label in the breath by 17% (P < 0.01), and reduced food intake by 9% (P < 0.05) compared with the Coarse treatment.The Fine+LBG treatment (smaller droplet size) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 18% higher gastric volume (P < 0.001), increased SBWC content by 15% (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced food intake by 11% (P < 0.05, equivalent to an average of 411 kJ less energy consumed) compared with the Coarse+LBG treatment.Manipulating intragastric stability and fat emulsion droplet size can influence human gastrointestinal physiology and food intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, and.

ABSTRACT

Background: Intragastric creaming and droplet size of fat emulsions may affect intragastric behavior and gastrointestinal and satiety responses.

Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that gastrointestinal physiologic responses and satiety will be increased by an increase in intragastric stability and by a decrease in fat droplet size of a fat emulsion.

Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized crossover study in 11 healthy persons [8 men and 3 women, aged 24 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.4 ± 0.9] who consumed meals containing 300-g 20% oil and water emulsion (2220 kJ) with 1) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size (Coarse treatment) expected to cream in the stomach; 2) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size with 0.5% locust bean gum (LBG; Coarse+LBG treatment) to prevent creaming; or 3) smaller, 0.4-μm mean droplet size with LBG (Fine+LBG treatment). The participants were imaged hourly by using MRI and food intake was assessed by using a meal that participants consumed ad libitum.

Results: The Coarse+LBG treatment (preventing creaming in the stomach) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 12% higher gastric volume over time (P < 0.001), increased small bowel water content (SBWC) by 11% (P < 0.01), slowed appearance of the (13)C label in the breath by 17% (P < 0.01), and reduced food intake by 9% (P < 0.05) compared with the Coarse treatment. The Fine+LBG treatment (smaller droplet size) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 18% higher gastric volume (P < 0.001), increased SBWC content by 15% (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced food intake by 11% (P < 0.05, equivalent to an average of 411 kJ less energy consumed) compared with the Coarse+LBG treatment. These high-fat meals stimulated substantial increases in SBWC, which increased to a peak at 4 h at 568 mL (range: 150-854 mL; P < 0.01) for the Fine+LBG treatment.

Conclusion: Manipulating intragastric stability and fat emulsion droplet size can influence human gastrointestinal physiology and food intake.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Lipid:water ratio measured from spectroscopy voxels placed in the upper (A) and the lower (B) part of the stomach of healthy young adults after consumption of the 3 meals containing a 20% sunflower oil in water emulsion on the 3 separate study days: Coarse, Coarse+LBG, and Fine+LBG. Values are means ± SEMs, n = 11. The arrow indicates the meal time. Coarse, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size; Coarse+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; Fine+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 0.4-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; LBG, locust bean gum.
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fig4: Lipid:water ratio measured from spectroscopy voxels placed in the upper (A) and the lower (B) part of the stomach of healthy young adults after consumption of the 3 meals containing a 20% sunflower oil in water emulsion on the 3 separate study days: Coarse, Coarse+LBG, and Fine+LBG. Values are means ± SEMs, n = 11. The arrow indicates the meal time. Coarse, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size; Coarse+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; Fine+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 0.4-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; LBG, locust bean gum.

Mentions: An example of positioning of the MRS voxel in the upper and lower part of the stomach contents is shown in Supplemental Figure 3. Figure 4 shows the time courses of the lipid:water ratio calculated from the MRS data including the overall mean for the upper voxel and lower voxel. The data show significant differences between the Coarse and the Coarse+LBG treatment, with the upper layer of the Coarse treatment having a higher lipid:water ratio AUC than the lipid:water ratio AUC for the Coarse+LBG emulsion treatment (AUC, P < 0.001). The difference was 2.5-fold at t = 1 h. The lower layer of the Coarse treatment had a much lower lipid:water ratio AUC than the Coarse+LBG emulsion treatment (P < 0.0001). This is in keeping with the behavior shown in Figure 2. There was no difference between the Coarse+LBG treatment lipid:water ratio AUC and the Fine+LBG treatment lipid:water ratio AUC (upper layer, P = 0.75; lower layer, P = 0.87), confirming the desired lack of differences in the intragastric distribution between these 2 different droplet size emulsion systems containing LBG to stabilize them in the stomach.


Fat emulsion intragastric stability and droplet size modulate gastrointestinal responses and subsequent food intake in young adults.

Hussein MO, Hoad CL, Wright J, Singh G, Stephenson MC, Cox EF, Placidi E, Pritchard SE, Costigan C, Ribeiro H, Ciampi E, Nandi A, Hedges N, Sanderson P, Peters HP, Rayment P, Spiller RC, Gowland PA, Marciani L - J. Nutr. (2015)

Lipid:water ratio measured from spectroscopy voxels placed in the upper (A) and the lower (B) part of the stomach of healthy young adults after consumption of the 3 meals containing a 20% sunflower oil in water emulsion on the 3 separate study days: Coarse, Coarse+LBG, and Fine+LBG. Values are means ± SEMs, n = 11. The arrow indicates the meal time. Coarse, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size; Coarse+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; Fine+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 0.4-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; LBG, locust bean gum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4442113&req=5

fig4: Lipid:water ratio measured from spectroscopy voxels placed in the upper (A) and the lower (B) part of the stomach of healthy young adults after consumption of the 3 meals containing a 20% sunflower oil in water emulsion on the 3 separate study days: Coarse, Coarse+LBG, and Fine+LBG. Values are means ± SEMs, n = 11. The arrow indicates the meal time. Coarse, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size; Coarse+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 6-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; Fine+LBG, 20% oil and water emulsion with 0.4-μm mean droplet size and 0.5% locust bean gum; LBG, locust bean gum.
Mentions: An example of positioning of the MRS voxel in the upper and lower part of the stomach contents is shown in Supplemental Figure 3. Figure 4 shows the time courses of the lipid:water ratio calculated from the MRS data including the overall mean for the upper voxel and lower voxel. The data show significant differences between the Coarse and the Coarse+LBG treatment, with the upper layer of the Coarse treatment having a higher lipid:water ratio AUC than the lipid:water ratio AUC for the Coarse+LBG emulsion treatment (AUC, P < 0.001). The difference was 2.5-fold at t = 1 h. The lower layer of the Coarse treatment had a much lower lipid:water ratio AUC than the Coarse+LBG emulsion treatment (P < 0.0001). This is in keeping with the behavior shown in Figure 2. There was no difference between the Coarse+LBG treatment lipid:water ratio AUC and the Fine+LBG treatment lipid:water ratio AUC (upper layer, P = 0.75; lower layer, P = 0.87), confirming the desired lack of differences in the intragastric distribution between these 2 different droplet size emulsion systems containing LBG to stabilize them in the stomach.

Bottom Line: The Coarse+LBG treatment (preventing creaming in the stomach) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 12% higher gastric volume over time (P < 0.001), increased small bowel water content (SBWC) by 11% (P < 0.01), slowed appearance of the (13)C label in the breath by 17% (P < 0.01), and reduced food intake by 9% (P < 0.05) compared with the Coarse treatment.The Fine+LBG treatment (smaller droplet size) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 18% higher gastric volume (P < 0.001), increased SBWC content by 15% (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced food intake by 11% (P < 0.05, equivalent to an average of 411 kJ less energy consumed) compared with the Coarse+LBG treatment.Manipulating intragastric stability and fat emulsion droplet size can influence human gastrointestinal physiology and food intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, and.

ABSTRACT

Background: Intragastric creaming and droplet size of fat emulsions may affect intragastric behavior and gastrointestinal and satiety responses.

Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that gastrointestinal physiologic responses and satiety will be increased by an increase in intragastric stability and by a decrease in fat droplet size of a fat emulsion.

Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized crossover study in 11 healthy persons [8 men and 3 women, aged 24 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.4 ± 0.9] who consumed meals containing 300-g 20% oil and water emulsion (2220 kJ) with 1) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size (Coarse treatment) expected to cream in the stomach; 2) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size with 0.5% locust bean gum (LBG; Coarse+LBG treatment) to prevent creaming; or 3) smaller, 0.4-μm mean droplet size with LBG (Fine+LBG treatment). The participants were imaged hourly by using MRI and food intake was assessed by using a meal that participants consumed ad libitum.

Results: The Coarse+LBG treatment (preventing creaming in the stomach) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 12% higher gastric volume over time (P < 0.001), increased small bowel water content (SBWC) by 11% (P < 0.01), slowed appearance of the (13)C label in the breath by 17% (P < 0.01), and reduced food intake by 9% (P < 0.05) compared with the Coarse treatment. The Fine+LBG treatment (smaller droplet size) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 18% higher gastric volume (P < 0.001), increased SBWC content by 15% (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced food intake by 11% (P < 0.05, equivalent to an average of 411 kJ less energy consumed) compared with the Coarse+LBG treatment. These high-fat meals stimulated substantial increases in SBWC, which increased to a peak at 4 h at 568 mL (range: 150-854 mL; P < 0.01) for the Fine+LBG treatment.

Conclusion: Manipulating intragastric stability and fat emulsion droplet size can influence human gastrointestinal physiology and food intake.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus