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Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Zhang C, Wang LL, Yang YP, Duan YW - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits.We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees.We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [2] Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center, the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [3] Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research at Kunming, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [4] Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Insect diversity inside and outside the open top chambers.
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f2: Insect diversity inside and outside the open top chambers.

Mentions: Overall, our observations suggested that the OTCs changed the insect diversity significantly in comparison with the control outside the OTCs (Fig. 2, χ2 = 14.3, p = 0.003). Specifically, compared to the control plots, there were ca 4% increases of lepidopteran insects, 4.7% increases of hymenopteran insects, 14.2% increases of other insects and 22.8% decrease of dipteran insects in the OTCs. Furthermore, for the hymenopteran insects, ca 10.3% reduction of the bee visitations were found inside the OTCs in comparison with those outside the OTCs. Collectively, the insect diversity has been changed inside the OTCs, indicating the changed selective pressures on flowers from the pollinators.


Flower evolution of alpine forbs in the open top chambers (OTCs) from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Zhang C, Wang LL, Yang YP, Duan YW - Sci Rep (2015)

Insect diversity inside and outside the open top chambers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441194&req=5

f2: Insect diversity inside and outside the open top chambers.
Mentions: Overall, our observations suggested that the OTCs changed the insect diversity significantly in comparison with the control outside the OTCs (Fig. 2, χ2 = 14.3, p = 0.003). Specifically, compared to the control plots, there were ca 4% increases of lepidopteran insects, 4.7% increases of hymenopteran insects, 14.2% increases of other insects and 22.8% decrease of dipteran insects in the OTCs. Furthermore, for the hymenopteran insects, ca 10.3% reduction of the bee visitations were found inside the OTCs in comparison with those outside the OTCs. Collectively, the insect diversity has been changed inside the OTCs, indicating the changed selective pressures on flowers from the pollinators.

Bottom Line: We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits.We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees.We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [2] Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center, the Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [3] Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research at Kunming, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China [4] Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Beijing, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Effects of global changes on biodiversity have been paid more and more attention world widely, and the open top chambers (OTCs) are the most common tools to study the effects of climatic warming on plant diversity. However, it remains unclear how flowers evolve under environmental changes, which could help us to understand the changes of plant diversity in the OTCs. We compared the insect diversity and pollen:ovule (P/O) ratio of eight outcrossing species with different life histories inside and outside the OTCs on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to examine the effects induced by OTCs on the evolution of floral traits. In the OTCs, P/O ratio decreased in annuals, but increased in perennials, indicating an overall trend toward selfing in annuals. We found that the insect diversity differed significantly inside and outside the OTCS, with decreases of dipteran insects and bees. We concluded that changes of P/O ratio in the studied plant species might result from pollination failure, which might be the results of mismatch between flowering time and pollinator activities. We also suggested annuals might be in a more extinction risk than perennials in OTCs, if strong inbreeding depression occurs in these annual outcrossing plants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus