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An in-vitro-in-vivo model for the transdermal delivery of cholecalciferol for the purposes of rodent management.

Davies J, Ingham A - Int J Pharm (2015)

Bottom Line: The natural selection of anticoagulant resistant rats has resulted in a need for an alternative to anticoagulant rodenticides which differs in both active ingredient and in the method of dosing.A 1 ml dose of 50/50 (v/v) DMSO/ethanol containing 15% (v/v) PEG 200 and 20% (w/v) cholecalciferol was judged as 'sufficiently effective' in line with the European Union's Biocidal Products Regulation (No. 528/2012) during in-vivo studies.This dose was found to cause 100% mortality in a rat population in 64.4h (± 22h).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mortality and time until endpoint summary for formulations. (A–E) Survival rates for transdermal cholecalciferol formulations. Mean values ± SD (n = 5).
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fig0030: Mortality and time until endpoint summary for formulations. (A–E) Survival rates for transdermal cholecalciferol formulations. Mean values ± SD (n = 5).

Mentions: Fig. 6 shows the respective survival rates for each of the five formulations designed to improve the transport of cholecalciferol through rat skin. The results suggest that only formulations which contained DMSO produced 100% mortality. In line with the EPPO guidelines these formulations can be considered for further investigation. The ethanol formulations containing 20% and 40% (w/v) cholecalciferol caused 20% and 60% mortality, respectively; these formulations would be ineffective as a rodenticide and warranted no further investigation. The results suggest that the inclusion of DMSO has improved the penetration of cholecalciferol causing 100% mortality within 5 days of application when compared with the ethanol formulations. No significant differences (p < 0.1) were found between the times taken for mortality across the three formulations that exhibited 100% mortality.


An in-vitro-in-vivo model for the transdermal delivery of cholecalciferol for the purposes of rodent management.

Davies J, Ingham A - Int J Pharm (2015)

Mortality and time until endpoint summary for formulations. (A–E) Survival rates for transdermal cholecalciferol formulations. Mean values ± SD (n = 5).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441109&req=5

fig0030: Mortality and time until endpoint summary for formulations. (A–E) Survival rates for transdermal cholecalciferol formulations. Mean values ± SD (n = 5).
Mentions: Fig. 6 shows the respective survival rates for each of the five formulations designed to improve the transport of cholecalciferol through rat skin. The results suggest that only formulations which contained DMSO produced 100% mortality. In line with the EPPO guidelines these formulations can be considered for further investigation. The ethanol formulations containing 20% and 40% (w/v) cholecalciferol caused 20% and 60% mortality, respectively; these formulations would be ineffective as a rodenticide and warranted no further investigation. The results suggest that the inclusion of DMSO has improved the penetration of cholecalciferol causing 100% mortality within 5 days of application when compared with the ethanol formulations. No significant differences (p < 0.1) were found between the times taken for mortality across the three formulations that exhibited 100% mortality.

Bottom Line: The natural selection of anticoagulant resistant rats has resulted in a need for an alternative to anticoagulant rodenticides which differs in both active ingredient and in the method of dosing.A 1 ml dose of 50/50 (v/v) DMSO/ethanol containing 15% (v/v) PEG 200 and 20% (w/v) cholecalciferol was judged as 'sufficiently effective' in line with the European Union's Biocidal Products Regulation (No. 528/2012) during in-vivo studies.This dose was found to cause 100% mortality in a rat population in 64.4h (± 22h).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus