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Instability of the perceived world while watching 3D stereoscopic imagery: A likely source of motion sickness symptoms.

Hwang AD, Peli E - Iperception (2014)

Bottom Line: Numerous studies have reported motion-sickness-like symptoms during stereoscopic viewing, but no causal linkage between specific aspects of the presentation and the induced discomfort has been explicitly proposed.Here, we describe several causes, in which stereoscopic capture, display, and viewing differ from natural viewing resulting in static and, importantly, dynamic distortions that conflict with the expected stability and rigidity of the real world.This analysis provides a basis for suggested changes to display systems that may alleviate the symptoms, and suggestions for future studies to determine the relative contribution of the various effects to the unpleasant symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; e-mail: alex_hwang@meei.harvard.edu.

ABSTRACT
Watching 3D content using a stereoscopic display may cause various discomforting symptoms, including eye strain, blurred vision, double vision, and motion sickness. Numerous studies have reported motion-sickness-like symptoms during stereoscopic viewing, but no causal linkage between specific aspects of the presentation and the induced discomfort has been explicitly proposed. Here, we describe several causes, in which stereoscopic capture, display, and viewing differ from natural viewing resulting in static and, importantly, dynamic distortions that conflict with the expected stability and rigidity of the real world. This analysis provides a basis for suggested changes to display systems that may alleviate the symptoms, and suggestions for future studies to determine the relative contribution of the various effects to the unpleasant symptoms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Angular disparity distribution in degrees of objects in the scene seen by a viewer fixating the central object (O5). (b) Physical distance of objects in the scene measured in meters from the midpoint of the line connecting the nodal points of the eyes. (c) Ideal perception of the sample scene.
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Figure 3: (a) Angular disparity distribution in degrees of objects in the scene seen by a viewer fixating the central object (O5). (b) Physical distance of objects in the scene measured in meters from the midpoint of the line connecting the nodal points of the eyes. (c) Ideal perception of the sample scene.

Mentions: Figure 3a shows the ADs of the nine objects in the real scene, as projected to a viewer's retinas while fixating at the center object (O5). Note that (1) the fixated object (O5) has zero AD, (2) nearer objects (O1-O2-O3) relative to the fixated objects have positive ADs, and (3) farther objects (O7-O8-O9) have negative ADs. Therefore, ADs in binocular vision can be considered as an encoding of depth structure in “relative” (not “absolute”) distance/depth with respect to the egocentric distance to the fixated object. Along a given line of sight, disparity monotonically decreases with distance, but the scale of the change and the location of zero disparity vary as a function of VE. This suggests that in order to estimate the absolute or actual egocentric distance to an object in the visual field, the human binocular vision system must combine at least two different depth cues, one based on the binocular stereo cues (e.g., AD) that supplies relative spatial layout of the visual scene, and the other based on nondisparity-based visual depth/distance cues (e.g., known size of the aimed object, convergence angle, accommodation, or linear perspective) that provide an estimate of absolute distance to the fixated object. The effectiveness of the various depth cues depends primarily on distance from the viewer to the objects of interest (Nagata, 1993), and combinations among various depth cues are situation dependent (Cutting & Vishton, 1995).


Instability of the perceived world while watching 3D stereoscopic imagery: A likely source of motion sickness symptoms.

Hwang AD, Peli E - Iperception (2014)

(a) Angular disparity distribution in degrees of objects in the scene seen by a viewer fixating the central object (O5). (b) Physical distance of objects in the scene measured in meters from the midpoint of the line connecting the nodal points of the eyes. (c) Ideal perception of the sample scene.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441027&req=5

Figure 3: (a) Angular disparity distribution in degrees of objects in the scene seen by a viewer fixating the central object (O5). (b) Physical distance of objects in the scene measured in meters from the midpoint of the line connecting the nodal points of the eyes. (c) Ideal perception of the sample scene.
Mentions: Figure 3a shows the ADs of the nine objects in the real scene, as projected to a viewer's retinas while fixating at the center object (O5). Note that (1) the fixated object (O5) has zero AD, (2) nearer objects (O1-O2-O3) relative to the fixated objects have positive ADs, and (3) farther objects (O7-O8-O9) have negative ADs. Therefore, ADs in binocular vision can be considered as an encoding of depth structure in “relative” (not “absolute”) distance/depth with respect to the egocentric distance to the fixated object. Along a given line of sight, disparity monotonically decreases with distance, but the scale of the change and the location of zero disparity vary as a function of VE. This suggests that in order to estimate the absolute or actual egocentric distance to an object in the visual field, the human binocular vision system must combine at least two different depth cues, one based on the binocular stereo cues (e.g., AD) that supplies relative spatial layout of the visual scene, and the other based on nondisparity-based visual depth/distance cues (e.g., known size of the aimed object, convergence angle, accommodation, or linear perspective) that provide an estimate of absolute distance to the fixated object. The effectiveness of the various depth cues depends primarily on distance from the viewer to the objects of interest (Nagata, 1993), and combinations among various depth cues are situation dependent (Cutting & Vishton, 1995).

Bottom Line: Numerous studies have reported motion-sickness-like symptoms during stereoscopic viewing, but no causal linkage between specific aspects of the presentation and the induced discomfort has been explicitly proposed.Here, we describe several causes, in which stereoscopic capture, display, and viewing differ from natural viewing resulting in static and, importantly, dynamic distortions that conflict with the expected stability and rigidity of the real world.This analysis provides a basis for suggested changes to display systems that may alleviate the symptoms, and suggestions for future studies to determine the relative contribution of the various effects to the unpleasant symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; e-mail: alex_hwang@meei.harvard.edu.

ABSTRACT
Watching 3D content using a stereoscopic display may cause various discomforting symptoms, including eye strain, blurred vision, double vision, and motion sickness. Numerous studies have reported motion-sickness-like symptoms during stereoscopic viewing, but no causal linkage between specific aspects of the presentation and the induced discomfort has been explicitly proposed. Here, we describe several causes, in which stereoscopic capture, display, and viewing differ from natural viewing resulting in static and, importantly, dynamic distortions that conflict with the expected stability and rigidity of the real world. This analysis provides a basis for suggested changes to display systems that may alleviate the symptoms, and suggestions for future studies to determine the relative contribution of the various effects to the unpleasant symptoms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus