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Rapid gist perception of meaningful real-life scenes: Exploring individual and gender differences in multiple categorization tasks.

Vanmarcke S, Wagemans J - Iperception (2015)

Bottom Line: Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog) and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles) and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog).In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli) and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence.In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium, e-mail: steven.vanmarcke@ppw.kuleuven.be.

ABSTRACT
In everyday life, we are generally able to dynamically understand and adapt to socially (ir)elevant encounters, and to make appropriate decisions about these. All of this requires an impressive ability to directly filter and obtain the most informative aspects of a complex visual scene. Such rapid gist perception can be assessed in multiple ways. In the ultrafast categorization paradigm developed by Simon Thorpe et al. (1996), participants get a clear categorization task in advance and succeed at detecting the target object of interest (animal) almost perfectly (even with 20 ms exposures). Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog) and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles) and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog). In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli) and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence. In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualization of the data by means of a scatterplot in (A). The individual subjects' median RT scores in the Social State (Is there a positive interaction (friendship) present in the scene?) are placed on the abscissa and those of the Scene State (Is the scene happening indoor?) on the ordinate axis. Men are always depicted in blue, women in red. Two things are noticeable from this graphical depiction: (1) people are generally faster at categorization of the Scene State in comparison with the Social State and (2) men seem to have larger RTs (on both tasks) in comparison to women. Similar conclusions can be drawn from (B), in which all RT data in the Social task are binned per 10 ms and plotted with respect to frequency. The female RT distribution (red) peaks clearly earlier than the male RT distribution (blue) and has a slightly lighter right tail.
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Figure 5: Visualization of the data by means of a scatterplot in (A). The individual subjects' median RT scores in the Social State (Is there a positive interaction (friendship) present in the scene?) are placed on the abscissa and those of the Scene State (Is the scene happening indoor?) on the ordinate axis. Men are always depicted in blue, women in red. Two things are noticeable from this graphical depiction: (1) people are generally faster at categorization of the Scene State in comparison with the Social State and (2) men seem to have larger RTs (on both tasks) in comparison to women. Similar conclusions can be drawn from (B), in which all RT data in the Social task are binned per 10 ms and plotted with respect to frequency. The female RT distribution (red) peaks clearly earlier than the male RT distribution (blue) and has a slightly lighter right tail.

Mentions: Other descriptive variables (e.g., Total IQ, BRIEF-A, and Age) taken into account as covariates did not provide a significant improvement in predicting RT or accuracy. Specifically checking for group-level Gender differences [Aim 2], we did find significantly faster RT and higher accuracy values for women in comparison to men in judging both social and scene state (Figure 5). This was observed by adding the fixed (between-subjects) factor Gender (RT: t47.86 = −2.24; p = .03 / Accuracy: Z = 2.15; p = .03) as a predictor of each of both dependent variables. The latter finding is in line with previous research indicating gender-specific responses with respect to emotionally relevant stimuli (Erwin et al., 1992; Kret & De Gelder, 2012; Lang et al., 1993; Wrase et al., 2003).


Rapid gist perception of meaningful real-life scenes: Exploring individual and gender differences in multiple categorization tasks.

Vanmarcke S, Wagemans J - Iperception (2015)

Visualization of the data by means of a scatterplot in (A). The individual subjects' median RT scores in the Social State (Is there a positive interaction (friendship) present in the scene?) are placed on the abscissa and those of the Scene State (Is the scene happening indoor?) on the ordinate axis. Men are always depicted in blue, women in red. Two things are noticeable from this graphical depiction: (1) people are generally faster at categorization of the Scene State in comparison with the Social State and (2) men seem to have larger RTs (on both tasks) in comparison to women. Similar conclusions can be drawn from (B), in which all RT data in the Social task are binned per 10 ms and plotted with respect to frequency. The female RT distribution (red) peaks clearly earlier than the male RT distribution (blue) and has a slightly lighter right tail.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441019&req=5

Figure 5: Visualization of the data by means of a scatterplot in (A). The individual subjects' median RT scores in the Social State (Is there a positive interaction (friendship) present in the scene?) are placed on the abscissa and those of the Scene State (Is the scene happening indoor?) on the ordinate axis. Men are always depicted in blue, women in red. Two things are noticeable from this graphical depiction: (1) people are generally faster at categorization of the Scene State in comparison with the Social State and (2) men seem to have larger RTs (on both tasks) in comparison to women. Similar conclusions can be drawn from (B), in which all RT data in the Social task are binned per 10 ms and plotted with respect to frequency. The female RT distribution (red) peaks clearly earlier than the male RT distribution (blue) and has a slightly lighter right tail.
Mentions: Other descriptive variables (e.g., Total IQ, BRIEF-A, and Age) taken into account as covariates did not provide a significant improvement in predicting RT or accuracy. Specifically checking for group-level Gender differences [Aim 2], we did find significantly faster RT and higher accuracy values for women in comparison to men in judging both social and scene state (Figure 5). This was observed by adding the fixed (between-subjects) factor Gender (RT: t47.86 = −2.24; p = .03 / Accuracy: Z = 2.15; p = .03) as a predictor of each of both dependent variables. The latter finding is in line with previous research indicating gender-specific responses with respect to emotionally relevant stimuli (Erwin et al., 1992; Kret & De Gelder, 2012; Lang et al., 1993; Wrase et al., 2003).

Bottom Line: Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog) and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles) and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog).In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli) and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence.In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium, e-mail: steven.vanmarcke@ppw.kuleuven.be.

ABSTRACT
In everyday life, we are generally able to dynamically understand and adapt to socially (ir)elevant encounters, and to make appropriate decisions about these. All of this requires an impressive ability to directly filter and obtain the most informative aspects of a complex visual scene. Such rapid gist perception can be assessed in multiple ways. In the ultrafast categorization paradigm developed by Simon Thorpe et al. (1996), participants get a clear categorization task in advance and succeed at detecting the target object of interest (animal) almost perfectly (even with 20 ms exposures). Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog) and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles) and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog). In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli) and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence. In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus