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Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.


Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on age (a) and size (dorsal shield length) (b) at maturity of male and female P. persimilis (mean + SE). p-values refer to differences between males and females pooled over IGP risk levels (GLM).
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Figure 3: Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on age (a) and size (dorsal shield length) (b) at maturity of male and female P. persimilis (mean + SE). p-values refer to differences between males and females pooled over IGP risk levels (GLM).

Mentions: Male Phytoseiulus persimilis developed more quickly from larva to adulthood than females (GLM; Wald χ21 = 36.938, p < 0.001). The total developmental time from larva to adulthood was not influenced by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 1.500, p = 0.472) and the interaction between sex and larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 0.389, p = 0.823) (Fig. 3a). Adult body size of males was smaller than that of females (Wald χ21 = 1715.237, p < 0.001) but body size was not influenced by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 1.221, p = 0.543) and the sex/larval IGP risk interaction (Wald χ22 = 1.786, p = 0.409) (Fig. 3b).


Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on age (a) and size (dorsal shield length) (b) at maturity of male and female P. persimilis (mean + SE). p-values refer to differences between males and females pooled over IGP risk levels (GLM).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441005&req=5

Figure 3: Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on age (a) and size (dorsal shield length) (b) at maturity of male and female P. persimilis (mean + SE). p-values refer to differences between males and females pooled over IGP risk levels (GLM).
Mentions: Male Phytoseiulus persimilis developed more quickly from larva to adulthood than females (GLM; Wald χ21 = 36.938, p < 0.001). The total developmental time from larva to adulthood was not influenced by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 1.500, p = 0.472) and the interaction between sex and larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 0.389, p = 0.823) (Fig. 3a). Adult body size of males was smaller than that of females (Wald χ21 = 1715.237, p < 0.001) but body size was not influenced by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 1.221, p = 0.543) and the sex/larval IGP risk interaction (Wald χ22 = 1.786, p = 0.409) (Fig. 3b).

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.