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Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.


Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on consumption of spider mite eggs (a), consumption of spider mite juveniles (b), activity (c) and development (d) of P. persimilis protonymphs and deutonymphs (mean + SE). Different lower script and capital letters inside bars indicate significant effects between IGP risk levels within nymphal stages and between IGP risk levels pooled over nymphal stages, respectively (LSD-tests, p < 0.05). p-values refer to differences between proto- and deutonymphs pooled over IGP risk levels (GEE).
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Figure 2: Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on consumption of spider mite eggs (a), consumption of spider mite juveniles (b), activity (c) and development (d) of P. persimilis protonymphs and deutonymphs (mean + SE). Different lower script and capital letters inside bars indicate significant effects between IGP risk levels within nymphal stages and between IGP risk levels pooled over nymphal stages, respectively (LSD-tests, p < 0.05). p-values refer to differences between proto- and deutonymphs pooled over IGP risk levels (GEE).

Mentions: Spider mite egg consumption by nymphs was influenced by IGP risk of larvae (GEE, Wald χ22 = 14.497, p = 0.001), nymphal stage (Wald χ21 = 364.989, p < 0.001) and their interaction (Wald χ22 = 6.927, p = 0.031). The significant interaction term indicated that egg consumption by deutonymphs was not affected by larval IGP risk, whereas protonymphs that had been exposed to high IGP risk in the larval stage consumed more spider mite eggs than protonymphs in the other treatments (Fig. 2a). Consumption of mobile juvenile spider mites by nymphs was affected by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 6.174, p = 0.046) and nymphal stage (Wald χ21 = 123.135, p < 0.001) but not their interaction (Wald χ22 = 1.004, p = 0.605). Pooled over nymphal stages, nymphs that had been exposed to high IGP risk in the larval stage consumed more juvenile spider mites (mean per day ± SE; 2.97 ± 0.21) than nymphs in the control treatment (2.21 ± 0.22). Pooled over larval IGP risks, deutonymphs consumed more juvenile spider mites (4.05 ± 0.17) than protonymphs (1.20 ± 0.18) (Fig. 2b).


Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on consumption of spider mite eggs (a), consumption of spider mite juveniles (b), activity (c) and development (d) of P. persimilis protonymphs and deutonymphs (mean + SE). Different lower script and capital letters inside bars indicate significant effects between IGP risk levels within nymphal stages and between IGP risk levels pooled over nymphal stages, respectively (LSD-tests, p < 0.05). p-values refer to differences between proto- and deutonymphs pooled over IGP risk levels (GEE).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441005&req=5

Figure 2: Influence of previous IGP risk during the larval stage (no: white, n = 36; low: light grey, n = 36); high: dark grey, n = 36) on consumption of spider mite eggs (a), consumption of spider mite juveniles (b), activity (c) and development (d) of P. persimilis protonymphs and deutonymphs (mean + SE). Different lower script and capital letters inside bars indicate significant effects between IGP risk levels within nymphal stages and between IGP risk levels pooled over nymphal stages, respectively (LSD-tests, p < 0.05). p-values refer to differences between proto- and deutonymphs pooled over IGP risk levels (GEE).
Mentions: Spider mite egg consumption by nymphs was influenced by IGP risk of larvae (GEE, Wald χ22 = 14.497, p = 0.001), nymphal stage (Wald χ21 = 364.989, p < 0.001) and their interaction (Wald χ22 = 6.927, p = 0.031). The significant interaction term indicated that egg consumption by deutonymphs was not affected by larval IGP risk, whereas protonymphs that had been exposed to high IGP risk in the larval stage consumed more spider mite eggs than protonymphs in the other treatments (Fig. 2a). Consumption of mobile juvenile spider mites by nymphs was affected by larval IGP risk (Wald χ22 = 6.174, p = 0.046) and nymphal stage (Wald χ21 = 123.135, p < 0.001) but not their interaction (Wald χ22 = 1.004, p = 0.605). Pooled over nymphal stages, nymphs that had been exposed to high IGP risk in the larval stage consumed more juvenile spider mites (mean per day ± SE; 2.97 ± 0.21) than nymphs in the control treatment (2.21 ± 0.22). Pooled over larval IGP risks, deutonymphs consumed more juvenile spider mites (4.05 ± 0.17) than protonymphs (1.20 ± 0.18) (Fig. 2b).

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.