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Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.


Influence of IGP risk (no: white, n = 39; low: light grey, n = 37; high: dark grey, n = 46) on survival (a), activity (b), spatial predator avoidance (c) and developmental time (d) of IG prey larvae of P. persimilis (mean + SE). Different letters inside bars indicate significant differences between predation risks (LSD-tests, p < 0.05).
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Figure 1: Influence of IGP risk (no: white, n = 39; low: light grey, n = 37; high: dark grey, n = 46) on survival (a), activity (b), spatial predator avoidance (c) and developmental time (d) of IG prey larvae of P. persimilis (mean + SE). Different letters inside bars indicate significant differences between predation risks (LSD-tests, p < 0.05).

Mentions: Survival (GLM; Wald χ22 = 7.570, p = 0.023), activity (χ22 = 7.079, p = 0.029), spatial IG predator avoidance (χ21 = 9.037, p = 0.003) and developmental times (χ22 = 13.385, p = 0.001) of IG prey larvae were influenced by IGP risk. IG prey survival was lower in presence of the high risk IG predator than in the other treatments (Fig. 1a). Similarly, only presence of the high risk IG predator induced higher activity in IG prey (Fig. 1b) and increased the inter-individual distance between IG prey and IG predator (Fig. 1c). IG predator activity was not affected by IG predator species (mean proportion of time spent moving ± SE; Neoseiulus californicus: 0.32 ± 0.04; Amblyseius andersoni: 0.33 ± 0.04; GLM, Wald χ21 = 0.022, p = 0.883). Only presence of the high risk IG predator prolonged the larval developmental time of IG prey as compared to the control (Fig. 1d). Larval IGP risk (GLM; Wald χ22 = 0.339, p = 0.844) did not affect the sex ratio (female proportion) of IG prey reaching adulthood (no risk: 0.70; low IGP risk: 0.67; high IGP risk: 0.64), indicating that survival of IG prey was not sex-specific.


Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

Walzer A, Lepp N, Schausberger P - Oikos (2015)

Influence of IGP risk (no: white, n = 39; low: light grey, n = 37; high: dark grey, n = 46) on survival (a), activity (b), spatial predator avoidance (c) and developmental time (d) of IG prey larvae of P. persimilis (mean + SE). Different letters inside bars indicate significant differences between predation risks (LSD-tests, p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4441005&req=5

Figure 1: Influence of IGP risk (no: white, n = 39; low: light grey, n = 37; high: dark grey, n = 46) on survival (a), activity (b), spatial predator avoidance (c) and developmental time (d) of IG prey larvae of P. persimilis (mean + SE). Different letters inside bars indicate significant differences between predation risks (LSD-tests, p < 0.05).
Mentions: Survival (GLM; Wald χ22 = 7.570, p = 0.023), activity (χ22 = 7.079, p = 0.029), spatial IG predator avoidance (χ21 = 9.037, p = 0.003) and developmental times (χ22 = 13.385, p = 0.001) of IG prey larvae were influenced by IGP risk. IG prey survival was lower in presence of the high risk IG predator than in the other treatments (Fig. 1a). Similarly, only presence of the high risk IG predator induced higher activity in IG prey (Fig. 1b) and increased the inter-individual distance between IG prey and IG predator (Fig. 1c). IG predator activity was not affected by IG predator species (mean proportion of time spent moving ± SE; Neoseiulus californicus: 0.32 ± 0.04; Amblyseius andersoni: 0.33 ± 0.04; GLM, Wald χ21 = 0.022, p = 0.883). Only presence of the high risk IG predator prolonged the larval developmental time of IG prey as compared to the control (Fig. 1d). Larval IGP risk (GLM; Wald χ22 = 0.339, p = 0.844) did not affect the sex ratio (female proportion) of IG prey reaching adulthood (no risk: 0.70; low IGP risk: 0.67; high IGP risk: 0.64), indicating that survival of IG prey was not sex-specific.

Bottom Line: Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth.Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity.High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Div. of Plant Protection, Dept of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstrasse 82, AT-1190 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

No MeSH data available.