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Galectins: Double-edged Swords in the Cross-roads of Pregnancy Complications and Female Reproductive Tract Inflammation and Neoplasia.

Than NG, Romero R, Balogh A, Karpati E, Mastrolia SA, Staretz-Chacham O, Hahn S, Erez O, Papp Z, Kim CJ - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism.Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation.This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Detroit, MI, USA ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Budapest, Hungary ; Maternity Private Department, Kutvolgyi Clinical Block, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hangary ; First Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient and widely expressed family of lectins that have unique glycan-binding characteristics. They are pleiotropic regulators of key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and pre-mRNA splicing, as well as homo- and heterotypic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Galectins are also pivotal in immune responses since they regulate host-pathogen interactions, innate and adaptive immune responses, acute and chronic inflammation, and immune tolerance. Some galectins are also central to the regulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion. Expression and functional data provide convincing evidence that, due to these functions, galectins play key roles in shared and unique pathways of normal embryonic and placental development as well as oncodevelopmental processes in tumorigenesis. Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism. Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Physiological aspects of galectins at the maternal-fetal interface. The figure represents multiple roles of galectins in implantation, angiogenesis, maternal-fetal immune tolerance and trophoblast invasion. (A) Embryo implantation. (B) Formation of primary villi by proliferative cytotrophoblasts. (C) Formation of tertiary villi, placental angiogenesis, extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. AE, amniotic epithelium; CCT, cell column trophoblast; DC, dendritic cell; DF, decidual fibroblast; EB, embryoblast; EC, endothelial cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EM, extraembryonic mesoderm; eCTB, endovascular cytotrophoblast; GC, giant cell; ICM, inner cell mass, iCTB, interstitial cytotrophoblast; LUE, luminal uterine epithelium; L, lacunae; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NK, natural killer; pF, placental fibroblast; PS, primitive syncytium; pV, placental vessel; SA, spiral artery; S, syncytium; SMC, smooth muscle cell; TE, trophectoderm; UG, uterine gland; uNK, uterine NK cell; UV, uterine vessel; vCTB, villous cytotrophoblast. Cartoons are adapted from Knofler and Pollheimer. Front Genet 2013; 4: 190, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [217].
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f3-jptm-49-3-181: Physiological aspects of galectins at the maternal-fetal interface. The figure represents multiple roles of galectins in implantation, angiogenesis, maternal-fetal immune tolerance and trophoblast invasion. (A) Embryo implantation. (B) Formation of primary villi by proliferative cytotrophoblasts. (C) Formation of tertiary villi, placental angiogenesis, extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. AE, amniotic epithelium; CCT, cell column trophoblast; DC, dendritic cell; DF, decidual fibroblast; EB, embryoblast; EC, endothelial cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EM, extraembryonic mesoderm; eCTB, endovascular cytotrophoblast; GC, giant cell; ICM, inner cell mass, iCTB, interstitial cytotrophoblast; LUE, luminal uterine epithelium; L, lacunae; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NK, natural killer; pF, placental fibroblast; PS, primitive syncytium; pV, placental vessel; SA, spiral artery; S, syncytium; SMC, smooth muscle cell; TE, trophectoderm; UG, uterine gland; uNK, uterine NK cell; UV, uterine vessel; vCTB, villous cytotrophoblast. Cartoons are adapted from Knofler and Pollheimer. Front Genet 2013; 4: 190, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [217].

Mentions: The human maternal-fetal interfaces dynamically change during gestation [190]. First, the syncytiotrophoblast is in direct contact with maternal cells in the decidua for a few days post-implantation and then with cells in the intervillous space. The latter is also the site of the interaction between the syncytiotrophoblast and maternal blood cells by the end of the first trimester, while invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the placental bed and trophoblasts in the chorion laeve come into contact with maternal cells in the decidua [190]. In this dynamic context, the expression of several galectins is also spatio-temporally regulated during development (Fig. 3) [8]. Galectin-1, -3, and -9 are broadly expressed during human and mouse embryogenesis, suggesting that they may play a role in embryo development in mammals [8]. Despite that, galectin-1 or galectin-3 knock out (KO) mice are viable [206], possibly due to the redundancy in galectin functions [8]. In addition, galectin-1, -3, -8, -9, -13, -14, and -16 are also strongly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface in various mammals, some in a developmentally regulated fashion [16,18,19,21,23,27,32-34,39].


Galectins: Double-edged Swords in the Cross-roads of Pregnancy Complications and Female Reproductive Tract Inflammation and Neoplasia.

Than NG, Romero R, Balogh A, Karpati E, Mastrolia SA, Staretz-Chacham O, Hahn S, Erez O, Papp Z, Kim CJ - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Physiological aspects of galectins at the maternal-fetal interface. The figure represents multiple roles of galectins in implantation, angiogenesis, maternal-fetal immune tolerance and trophoblast invasion. (A) Embryo implantation. (B) Formation of primary villi by proliferative cytotrophoblasts. (C) Formation of tertiary villi, placental angiogenesis, extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. AE, amniotic epithelium; CCT, cell column trophoblast; DC, dendritic cell; DF, decidual fibroblast; EB, embryoblast; EC, endothelial cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EM, extraembryonic mesoderm; eCTB, endovascular cytotrophoblast; GC, giant cell; ICM, inner cell mass, iCTB, interstitial cytotrophoblast; LUE, luminal uterine epithelium; L, lacunae; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NK, natural killer; pF, placental fibroblast; PS, primitive syncytium; pV, placental vessel; SA, spiral artery; S, syncytium; SMC, smooth muscle cell; TE, trophectoderm; UG, uterine gland; uNK, uterine NK cell; UV, uterine vessel; vCTB, villous cytotrophoblast. Cartoons are adapted from Knofler and Pollheimer. Front Genet 2013; 4: 190, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [217].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440931&req=5

f3-jptm-49-3-181: Physiological aspects of galectins at the maternal-fetal interface. The figure represents multiple roles of galectins in implantation, angiogenesis, maternal-fetal immune tolerance and trophoblast invasion. (A) Embryo implantation. (B) Formation of primary villi by proliferative cytotrophoblasts. (C) Formation of tertiary villi, placental angiogenesis, extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. AE, amniotic epithelium; CCT, cell column trophoblast; DC, dendritic cell; DF, decidual fibroblast; EB, embryoblast; EC, endothelial cell; ECM, extracellular matrix; EM, extraembryonic mesoderm; eCTB, endovascular cytotrophoblast; GC, giant cell; ICM, inner cell mass, iCTB, interstitial cytotrophoblast; LUE, luminal uterine epithelium; L, lacunae; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NK, natural killer; pF, placental fibroblast; PS, primitive syncytium; pV, placental vessel; SA, spiral artery; S, syncytium; SMC, smooth muscle cell; TE, trophectoderm; UG, uterine gland; uNK, uterine NK cell; UV, uterine vessel; vCTB, villous cytotrophoblast. Cartoons are adapted from Knofler and Pollheimer. Front Genet 2013; 4: 190, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [217].
Mentions: The human maternal-fetal interfaces dynamically change during gestation [190]. First, the syncytiotrophoblast is in direct contact with maternal cells in the decidua for a few days post-implantation and then with cells in the intervillous space. The latter is also the site of the interaction between the syncytiotrophoblast and maternal blood cells by the end of the first trimester, while invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the placental bed and trophoblasts in the chorion laeve come into contact with maternal cells in the decidua [190]. In this dynamic context, the expression of several galectins is also spatio-temporally regulated during development (Fig. 3) [8]. Galectin-1, -3, and -9 are broadly expressed during human and mouse embryogenesis, suggesting that they may play a role in embryo development in mammals [8]. Despite that, galectin-1 or galectin-3 knock out (KO) mice are viable [206], possibly due to the redundancy in galectin functions [8]. In addition, galectin-1, -3, -8, -9, -13, -14, and -16 are also strongly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface in various mammals, some in a developmentally regulated fashion [16,18,19,21,23,27,32-34,39].

Bottom Line: Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism.Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation.This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Detroit, MI, USA ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA ; Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Budapest, Hungary ; Maternity Private Department, Kutvolgyi Clinical Block, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hangary ; First Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

ABSTRACT
Galectins are an evolutionarily ancient and widely expressed family of lectins that have unique glycan-binding characteristics. They are pleiotropic regulators of key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and pre-mRNA splicing, as well as homo- and heterotypic cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Galectins are also pivotal in immune responses since they regulate host-pathogen interactions, innate and adaptive immune responses, acute and chronic inflammation, and immune tolerance. Some galectins are also central to the regulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion. Expression and functional data provide convincing evidence that, due to these functions, galectins play key roles in shared and unique pathways of normal embryonic and placental development as well as oncodevelopmental processes in tumorigenesis. Therefore, galectins may sometimes act as double-edged swords since they have beneficial but also harmful effects for the organism. Recent advances facilitate the use of galectins as biomarkers in obstetrical syndromes and in various malignancies, and their therapeutic applications are also under investigation. This review provides a general overview of galectins and a focused review of this lectin subfamily in the context of inflammation, infection and tumors of the female reproductive tract as well as in normal pregnancies and those complicated by the great obstetrical syndromes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus