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Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

Rukke BA, Aak A, Edgar KS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect.The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success.Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0456, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Feeding and survival of Cimex lectularius nymphs.The proportion feeding (A) and survival (B) of Cimex lectularius nymphs from previously heat treated parents are shown. Each cohort began with 50 nymphs, and all were given the opportunity to feed every 14 days. Feeding (mean ± SE) and survival were recorded until an adult appeared in all boxes in a treatment or all nymphs in a cohort were dead. Control = 22.0°C and d = days. Different letters denote significant differences in feeding or survival between treatments (p < 0.05).
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pone.0127555.g005: Feeding and survival of Cimex lectularius nymphs.The proportion feeding (A) and survival (B) of Cimex lectularius nymphs from previously heat treated parents are shown. Each cohort began with 50 nymphs, and all were given the opportunity to feed every 14 days. Feeding (mean ± SE) and survival were recorded until an adult appeared in all boxes in a treatment or all nymphs in a cohort were dead. Control = 22.0°C and d = days. Different letters denote significant differences in feeding or survival between treatments (p < 0.05).

Mentions: Heat treatment of the parents negatively influenced the development of their offspring. This effect was reflected by decreases in feeding, moulting ability, and survival. Offspring that originated from parents that were exposed to 38.5°C for 3 and 6 days exhibited a persistently and significantly reduced ability to feed compared with the control (paired t-test; 3 days: t5 = 3.104, p = 0.027; 6 days: t5 = 2.828, p = 0.037). The effect was most evident from the fourth feeding event (Fig 5A). The remaining treatments did not differ significantly from the control in their feeding habits (paired t-test; 35.5°C for 6 days: t4 = 0.667, p = 0.541; 37.0°C for 6 days: t5 = 0.518, p = 0.627; 38.5°C for 1 day: t5 = -1.557, p = 0.180).


Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

Rukke BA, Aak A, Edgar KS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Feeding and survival of Cimex lectularius nymphs.The proportion feeding (A) and survival (B) of Cimex lectularius nymphs from previously heat treated parents are shown. Each cohort began with 50 nymphs, and all were given the opportunity to feed every 14 days. Feeding (mean ± SE) and survival were recorded until an adult appeared in all boxes in a treatment or all nymphs in a cohort were dead. Control = 22.0°C and d = days. Different letters denote significant differences in feeding or survival between treatments (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440821&req=5

pone.0127555.g005: Feeding and survival of Cimex lectularius nymphs.The proportion feeding (A) and survival (B) of Cimex lectularius nymphs from previously heat treated parents are shown. Each cohort began with 50 nymphs, and all were given the opportunity to feed every 14 days. Feeding (mean ± SE) and survival were recorded until an adult appeared in all boxes in a treatment or all nymphs in a cohort were dead. Control = 22.0°C and d = days. Different letters denote significant differences in feeding or survival between treatments (p < 0.05).
Mentions: Heat treatment of the parents negatively influenced the development of their offspring. This effect was reflected by decreases in feeding, moulting ability, and survival. Offspring that originated from parents that were exposed to 38.5°C for 3 and 6 days exhibited a persistently and significantly reduced ability to feed compared with the control (paired t-test; 3 days: t5 = 3.104, p = 0.027; 6 days: t5 = 2.828, p = 0.037). The effect was most evident from the fourth feeding event (Fig 5A). The remaining treatments did not differ significantly from the control in their feeding habits (paired t-test; 35.5°C for 6 days: t4 = 0.667, p = 0.541; 37.0°C for 6 days: t5 = 0.518, p = 0.627; 38.5°C for 1 day: t5 = -1.557, p = 0.180).

Bottom Line: The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect.The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success.Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0456, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus