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Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

Rukke BA, Aak A, Edgar KS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect.The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success.Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0456, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Day degrees experienced and recovered fertility in heat treated adult Cimex lectularius.The correlation between day-degrees above the optimum developmental temperature for Cimex lectularius (28°C) experienced by adults under heat treatment and the time until their fertility recovered is described. Line equation: weeks = 0.142 + (0.099 × day degrees).
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pone.0127555.g003: Day degrees experienced and recovered fertility in heat treated adult Cimex lectularius.The correlation between day-degrees above the optimum developmental temperature for Cimex lectularius (28°C) experienced by adults under heat treatment and the time until their fertility recovered is described. Line equation: weeks = 0.142 + (0.099 × day degrees).

Mentions: Egg hatching success was not influenced by 1-day temperature treatments, but prolonged heat exposure of the adults temporarily impaired hatching success (Fig 2, summarized statistics in Table 2). Three days of exposure to 38.5°C resulted in fecundity that was significantly lower than the control, whereas 3 days of exposure to 35.5°C and 37.0°C had no long-term effect. Six days of exposure significantly reduced fecundity at all three temperatures compared with the control. Both the length of treatment and temperature influenced the time until fecundity recovered. This combined effect was best described by a correlation between the day-degrees experienced above the bed bug optimum temperature and the time until fertility recovered (Linear Regression; R2 = 0.827, p = 0.002; Fig 3).


Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

Rukke BA, Aak A, Edgar KS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Day degrees experienced and recovered fertility in heat treated adult Cimex lectularius.The correlation between day-degrees above the optimum developmental temperature for Cimex lectularius (28°C) experienced by adults under heat treatment and the time until their fertility recovered is described. Line equation: weeks = 0.142 + (0.099 × day degrees).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440821&req=5

pone.0127555.g003: Day degrees experienced and recovered fertility in heat treated adult Cimex lectularius.The correlation between day-degrees above the optimum developmental temperature for Cimex lectularius (28°C) experienced by adults under heat treatment and the time until their fertility recovered is described. Line equation: weeks = 0.142 + (0.099 × day degrees).
Mentions: Egg hatching success was not influenced by 1-day temperature treatments, but prolonged heat exposure of the adults temporarily impaired hatching success (Fig 2, summarized statistics in Table 2). Three days of exposure to 38.5°C resulted in fecundity that was significantly lower than the control, whereas 3 days of exposure to 35.5°C and 37.0°C had no long-term effect. Six days of exposure significantly reduced fecundity at all three temperatures compared with the control. Both the length of treatment and temperature influenced the time until fecundity recovered. This combined effect was best described by a correlation between the day-degrees experienced above the bed bug optimum temperature and the time until fertility recovered (Linear Regression; R2 = 0.827, p = 0.002; Fig 3).

Bottom Line: The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect.The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success.Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0456, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus