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Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

Pacheco JM, Smoliga GR, O'Donnell V, Brito BP, Stenfeldt C, Rodriguez LL, Arzt J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals.Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Plum Island, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE) was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198), IFN-β (RE = 0.269), IL-12 (RE = 0.275), and IL-2 (RE = 0.312). Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065). Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analysis of relative expression of different cytokines in dorsal soft palate of persistently infected steers.Boxes represent the interquartile range, or the middle 50% of observations. The dotted line represents the median gene expression. Whiskers represent the minimum and maximum observations.
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pone.0125698.g002: Analysis of relative expression of different cytokines in dorsal soft palate of persistently infected steers.Boxes represent the interquartile range, or the middle 50% of observations. The dotted line represents the median gene expression. Whiskers represent the minimum and maximum observations.

Mentions: Relative mRNA expression of a number of cytokines of interest were measured in caudal DSP tissue with means compared between 12 FMDV-persistently infected steers and three naïve steers. This comparison tested the hypothesis that the FMDV carrier state is not associated with any alteration of transcription of cytokine genes. Although no statistically significant differences in cytokine mRNA transcription between carriers and uninfected control animals were observed, there was a general trend of reduction in the expression in tissues of carriers as compared to uninfected controls for most of the cytokines examined (Fig 2, Table 3). This is reflected by mean expression ratios weighted below 1.0 for 12 out of 14 cytokines. Specifically, amongst carriers there was 2-fold or more reduction of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-α and RANTES. Cytokines IL-10, IL-15 and IL-18 had a reduction of expression in between 1 and 2-fold and IL-1β had no detectable change in expression (expression ratio = 1). IL-6 was the only cytokine showing increased expression amongst carriers with more than two-fold increase of relative expression.


Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

Pacheco JM, Smoliga GR, O'Donnell V, Brito BP, Stenfeldt C, Rodriguez LL, Arzt J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Analysis of relative expression of different cytokines in dorsal soft palate of persistently infected steers.Boxes represent the interquartile range, or the middle 50% of observations. The dotted line represents the median gene expression. Whiskers represent the minimum and maximum observations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440813&req=5

pone.0125698.g002: Analysis of relative expression of different cytokines in dorsal soft palate of persistently infected steers.Boxes represent the interquartile range, or the middle 50% of observations. The dotted line represents the median gene expression. Whiskers represent the minimum and maximum observations.
Mentions: Relative mRNA expression of a number of cytokines of interest were measured in caudal DSP tissue with means compared between 12 FMDV-persistently infected steers and three naïve steers. This comparison tested the hypothesis that the FMDV carrier state is not associated with any alteration of transcription of cytokine genes. Although no statistically significant differences in cytokine mRNA transcription between carriers and uninfected control animals were observed, there was a general trend of reduction in the expression in tissues of carriers as compared to uninfected controls for most of the cytokines examined (Fig 2, Table 3). This is reflected by mean expression ratios weighted below 1.0 for 12 out of 14 cytokines. Specifically, amongst carriers there was 2-fold or more reduction of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IP-10, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-α and RANTES. Cytokines IL-10, IL-15 and IL-18 had a reduction of expression in between 1 and 2-fold and IL-1β had no detectable change in expression (expression ratio = 1). IL-6 was the only cytokine showing increased expression amongst carriers with more than two-fold increase of relative expression.

Bottom Line: Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals.Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Plum Island, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95%) and dorsal soft palate (71.43%). FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE) was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198), IFN-β (RE = 0.269), IL-12 (RE = 0.275), and IL-2 (RE = 0.312). Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065). Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus