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Snakebites and scorpion stings in the Brazilian Amazon: identifying research priorities for a largely neglected problem.

Hui Wen F, Monteiro WM, Moura da Silva AM, Tambourgi DV, Mendonça da Silva I, Sampaio VS, dos Santos MC, Sachett J, Ferreira LC, Kalil J, Lacerda M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Butantan, Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Five types of snake AVs are currently available: Bothrops AV (main one), Crotalus AV, Bothrops-Crotalus AV, Bothrops-Lachesis AV, and Micrurus AV... Scorpion stings in the Amazon are mostly caused by Tityus obscurus, especially in the state of Pará, which can result in serious and fatal accidents... A verbal autopsy study from the state of Acre found that 10% of tappers and 14% of Amerindians were stung by scorpions at least once in their lifetime... It is difficult for riverine and indigenous populations to reach health centers for treatment of venomous animal injuries... As a result, the number of cases detected officially is probably much lower than the real number... There is an urgent need to ensure availability of effective AVs and to improve their manufacture regulation... However, the possible interspecific venom variation associated with the geographical distribution of snakes may affect the effectiveness of therapeutic AVs against the Amazon Bothrops venom... Efficacy of Brazilian AVs against venom from some Amazon Bothrops species has been investigated... Experimental studies should indicate the need for inclusion of new venoms, the new product needs to be validated by clinical and epidemiological data; Perform stability studies of liquid AVs considering the Amazonian environmental conditions... Although clinical research related to venomous animal injuries has increased, most publications are based on case reports and lack methodological rigor... Moreover, outcome definitions, such as severity ranking criteria, were empirically established, making the results even less generalizable... There are no accurate predictive factors for side effects occurrence and preventing them is not always possible, even with the use of premedication containing corticosteroids and/or antihistamines... Existing studies do not include controls for the intervening variables and samples are of insufficient size, limiting the validity of the results... Recommendations:Establish partnerships for capture of Lachesis snakes and transport to vivariums of laboratories producing AVs; Guide Lachesis reproduction in captivity, which should be led by professionals familiar with their conditions both in nature and supportive maintenance environment; Follow shared Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the collections of venomous animals in order to facilitate exchange of information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Snakes species involved in biting humans in the Brazilian Amazon.Pictures of the eight main snake species responsible for bites in the Brazilian Amazon region are shown (A–H). Bothrops atrox (A) is implicated in most of the human snakebites registered in the Brazilian Amazon region (80%–90%), followed by Lachesis muta (E).
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pntd.0003701.g002: Snakes species involved in biting humans in the Brazilian Amazon.Pictures of the eight main snake species responsible for bites in the Brazilian Amazon region are shown (A–H). Bothrops atrox (A) is implicated in most of the human snakebites registered in the Brazilian Amazon region (80%–90%), followed by Lachesis muta (E).

Mentions: Major species responsible for snakebites and scorpion stings in the Brazilian Amazon are presented in Figs 2 and 3, respectively.


Snakebites and scorpion stings in the Brazilian Amazon: identifying research priorities for a largely neglected problem.

Hui Wen F, Monteiro WM, Moura da Silva AM, Tambourgi DV, Mendonça da Silva I, Sampaio VS, dos Santos MC, Sachett J, Ferreira LC, Kalil J, Lacerda M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Snakes species involved in biting humans in the Brazilian Amazon.Pictures of the eight main snake species responsible for bites in the Brazilian Amazon region are shown (A–H). Bothrops atrox (A) is implicated in most of the human snakebites registered in the Brazilian Amazon region (80%–90%), followed by Lachesis muta (E).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440781&req=5

pntd.0003701.g002: Snakes species involved in biting humans in the Brazilian Amazon.Pictures of the eight main snake species responsible for bites in the Brazilian Amazon region are shown (A–H). Bothrops atrox (A) is implicated in most of the human snakebites registered in the Brazilian Amazon region (80%–90%), followed by Lachesis muta (E).
Mentions: Major species responsible for snakebites and scorpion stings in the Brazilian Amazon are presented in Figs 2 and 3, respectively.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Butantan, Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Five types of snake AVs are currently available: Bothrops AV (main one), Crotalus AV, Bothrops-Crotalus AV, Bothrops-Lachesis AV, and Micrurus AV... Scorpion stings in the Amazon are mostly caused by Tityus obscurus, especially in the state of Pará, which can result in serious and fatal accidents... A verbal autopsy study from the state of Acre found that 10% of tappers and 14% of Amerindians were stung by scorpions at least once in their lifetime... It is difficult for riverine and indigenous populations to reach health centers for treatment of venomous animal injuries... As a result, the number of cases detected officially is probably much lower than the real number... There is an urgent need to ensure availability of effective AVs and to improve their manufacture regulation... However, the possible interspecific venom variation associated with the geographical distribution of snakes may affect the effectiveness of therapeutic AVs against the Amazon Bothrops venom... Efficacy of Brazilian AVs against venom from some Amazon Bothrops species has been investigated... Experimental studies should indicate the need for inclusion of new venoms, the new product needs to be validated by clinical and epidemiological data; Perform stability studies of liquid AVs considering the Amazonian environmental conditions... Although clinical research related to venomous animal injuries has increased, most publications are based on case reports and lack methodological rigor... Moreover, outcome definitions, such as severity ranking criteria, were empirically established, making the results even less generalizable... There are no accurate predictive factors for side effects occurrence and preventing them is not always possible, even with the use of premedication containing corticosteroids and/or antihistamines... Existing studies do not include controls for the intervening variables and samples are of insufficient size, limiting the validity of the results... Recommendations:Establish partnerships for capture of Lachesis snakes and transport to vivariums of laboratories producing AVs; Guide Lachesis reproduction in captivity, which should be led by professionals familiar with their conditions both in nature and supportive maintenance environment; Follow shared Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the collections of venomous animals in order to facilitate exchange of information.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus