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Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, Feare C, Bastien M, Dietrich M, Larose C, Lagadec E, Rocamora G, Shah N, Pascalis H, Boulinier T, Le Corre M, Stallknecht DE, Dellagi K - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Bottom Line: On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks.Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species.We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GIS CRVOI (Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien), Sainte Clotilde, Reunion Island; Université de La Réunion, UMR PIMIT (Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical), INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, Saint Denis, Reunion Island.

ABSTRACT
Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody diversity in species in the Charadriiformes order.Numbers indicate the proportion of sample that tested positive for each subtype, based on the total number of samples tested for the same subtype. For instance, for sooty terns, 9 out of the 35 tested serum samples (26%) tested positive for the detection of H9 antibodies. Detailed results are presented in S4 Table.
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ppat.1004925.g003: Hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody diversity in species in the Charadriiformes order.Numbers indicate the proportion of sample that tested positive for each subtype, based on the total number of samples tested for the same subtype. For instance, for sooty terns, 9 out of the 35 tested serum samples (26%) tested positive for the detection of H9 antibodies. Detailed results are presented in S4 Table.

Mentions: Of the positive samples, HA-specific antibodies were detected in fifty-nine samples (38%). The HA subtype diversity was higher in lesser noddies than in brown noddies and sooty terns, with 10 out of the 16 described avian HA subtypes detected in lesser noddies (Fig 3; S4 Table). H16 was the most commonly detected subtype although H9 also was common in sooty terns, with 9 occurrences out of 19 samples (47%) that tested positive with the VN and HI assays. In most cases, antibodies reacted with only one HA subtype; however, multiple HA subtypes were also detected. Hence, four samples from sooty terns tested positive for more than one HA subtype, with combinations of H16 and H9, or H16 and H12, but not H9 and H12. The presence of multiple HA-subtypes was also frequent in lesser noddies (13 out of 38 samples; 34%), with either combinations between H16 and H1, H3, H6, H9 or between H12 and H1, H2, H3, H5, H6, H8, H9; only one sample tested positive for antibodies against both the H12 and H16 subtypes. For brown noddies, HA-specific antibodies were detected in only two out of the 26 samples that tested positive with the ELISA; one of the two samples tested positive for both the H7 and H11 HA subtype. None of the ELISA positive samples collected in non-Charadriiformes species tested positive with the VN and HI assays (S4 Table).


Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, Feare C, Bastien M, Dietrich M, Larose C, Lagadec E, Rocamora G, Shah N, Pascalis H, Boulinier T, Le Corre M, Stallknecht DE, Dellagi K - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody diversity in species in the Charadriiformes order.Numbers indicate the proportion of sample that tested positive for each subtype, based on the total number of samples tested for the same subtype. For instance, for sooty terns, 9 out of the 35 tested serum samples (26%) tested positive for the detection of H9 antibodies. Detailed results are presented in S4 Table.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440776&req=5

ppat.1004925.g003: Hemagglutinin (HA)-specific antibody diversity in species in the Charadriiformes order.Numbers indicate the proportion of sample that tested positive for each subtype, based on the total number of samples tested for the same subtype. For instance, for sooty terns, 9 out of the 35 tested serum samples (26%) tested positive for the detection of H9 antibodies. Detailed results are presented in S4 Table.
Mentions: Of the positive samples, HA-specific antibodies were detected in fifty-nine samples (38%). The HA subtype diversity was higher in lesser noddies than in brown noddies and sooty terns, with 10 out of the 16 described avian HA subtypes detected in lesser noddies (Fig 3; S4 Table). H16 was the most commonly detected subtype although H9 also was common in sooty terns, with 9 occurrences out of 19 samples (47%) that tested positive with the VN and HI assays. In most cases, antibodies reacted with only one HA subtype; however, multiple HA subtypes were also detected. Hence, four samples from sooty terns tested positive for more than one HA subtype, with combinations of H16 and H9, or H16 and H12, but not H9 and H12. The presence of multiple HA-subtypes was also frequent in lesser noddies (13 out of 38 samples; 34%), with either combinations between H16 and H1, H3, H6, H9 or between H12 and H1, H2, H3, H5, H6, H8, H9; only one sample tested positive for antibodies against both the H12 and H16 subtypes. For brown noddies, HA-specific antibodies were detected in only two out of the 26 samples that tested positive with the ELISA; one of the two samples tested positive for both the H7 and H11 HA subtype. None of the ELISA positive samples collected in non-Charadriiformes species tested positive with the VN and HI assays (S4 Table).

Bottom Line: On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks.Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species.We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GIS CRVOI (Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien), Sainte Clotilde, Reunion Island; Université de La Réunion, UMR PIMIT (Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical), INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, Saint Denis, Reunion Island.

ABSTRACT
Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus