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Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, Feare C, Bastien M, Dietrich M, Larose C, Lagadec E, Rocamora G, Shah N, Pascalis H, Boulinier T, Le Corre M, Stallknecht DE, Dellagi K - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Bottom Line: On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks.Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species.We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GIS CRVOI (Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien), Sainte Clotilde, Reunion Island; Université de La Réunion, UMR PIMIT (Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical), INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, Saint Denis, Reunion Island.

ABSTRACT
Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Influenza A virus host diversity.Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird order (red: Charadriiformes; green: Procellariformes; purple: Phaethontiformes; blue: Suliformes). (B) Influenza A virus host diversity in birds in the Charadriiformes order. Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird species (black: Lesser noddy; gray: Brown noddy; white: Sooty tern).
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ppat.1004925.g002: (A) Influenza A virus host diversity.Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird order (red: Charadriiformes; green: Procellariformes; purple: Phaethontiformes; blue: Suliformes). (B) Influenza A virus host diversity in birds in the Charadriiformes order. Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird species (black: Lesser noddy; gray: Brown noddy; white: Sooty tern).

Mentions: A total of 1647 sera were collected on seven islands of the Western Indian Ocean (S2 Table). Overall, 227 samples (13.8%) tested positive for the presence of IAV NP antibodies; details on sampled species, locations, collection date and bird status are presented in S2 Table. The probability of detection of IAV NP antibodies was significantly different among bird orders (GLM with binomial errors; χ2 = 89.7, p < 0.001). The mean prevalence of seropositive birds ± 95% confidence interval was: Charadriiformes: 17.8 ± 2.2%; Procellariformes: 7.4 ± 4.7%; Suliformes: 1.9 ± 2.2%; Phaethontiformes: 0.6 ± 1.1%). A strong island effect was also found (χ2 = 210, p < 0.001; Fig 2a), as well as an effect of the time of sampling (χ2 = 301, p < 0.001). Finally, the most parsimonious model identified with the AIC did not included the bird age; this finding was likely affected (i) by the low number of sampled chicks, and (ii) by the species and population in which chicks were sampled that corresponded mainly to those with low prevalence or absence of seropositive adults.


Influenza a virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian ocean.

Lebarbenchon C, Jaeger A, Feare C, Bastien M, Dietrich M, Larose C, Lagadec E, Rocamora G, Shah N, Pascalis H, Boulinier T, Le Corre M, Stallknecht DE, Dellagi K - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

(A) Influenza A virus host diversity.Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird order (red: Charadriiformes; green: Procellariformes; purple: Phaethontiformes; blue: Suliformes). (B) Influenza A virus host diversity in birds in the Charadriiformes order. Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird species (black: Lesser noddy; gray: Brown noddy; white: Sooty tern).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440776&req=5

ppat.1004925.g002: (A) Influenza A virus host diversity.Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird order (red: Charadriiformes; green: Procellariformes; purple: Phaethontiformes; blue: Suliformes). (B) Influenza A virus host diversity in birds in the Charadriiformes order. Prevalence of seropositive samples (percentage with 95% confidence interval), for each island and bird species (black: Lesser noddy; gray: Brown noddy; white: Sooty tern).
Mentions: A total of 1647 sera were collected on seven islands of the Western Indian Ocean (S2 Table). Overall, 227 samples (13.8%) tested positive for the presence of IAV NP antibodies; details on sampled species, locations, collection date and bird status are presented in S2 Table. The probability of detection of IAV NP antibodies was significantly different among bird orders (GLM with binomial errors; χ2 = 89.7, p < 0.001). The mean prevalence of seropositive birds ± 95% confidence interval was: Charadriiformes: 17.8 ± 2.2%; Procellariformes: 7.4 ± 4.7%; Suliformes: 1.9 ± 2.2%; Phaethontiformes: 0.6 ± 1.1%). A strong island effect was also found (χ2 = 210, p < 0.001; Fig 2a), as well as an effect of the time of sampling (χ2 = 301, p < 0.001). Finally, the most parsimonious model identified with the AIC did not included the bird age; this finding was likely affected (i) by the low number of sampled chicks, and (ii) by the species and population in which chicks were sampled that corresponded mainly to those with low prevalence or absence of seropositive adults.

Bottom Line: On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks.Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species.We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GIS CRVOI (Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien), Sainte Clotilde, Reunion Island; Université de La Réunion, UMR PIMIT (Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical), INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, Saint Denis, Reunion Island.

ABSTRACT
Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus