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Welcome Back: Responses of Female Bonobos (Pan paniscus) to Fusions.

Moscovice LR, Deschner T, Hohmann G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We compared urinary cortisol levels and frequencies of aggression, grooming and socio-sexual interactions between female bonobos while in stable sub-groups and when one "joiner" was reunited with the "residents" of another sub-group.Joiners who had been separated from residents for longer received the most solicitations, but were also more selective in their acceptance of solicitations and preferred to have socio-sexual interactions with higher-ranking residents.In addition, females who receive a high number of solicitations are able to gain more control over their socio-sexual interactions and may use socio-sexual interactions for other purposes, such as to enhance their social standing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
In species with a high degree of fission-fusion social dynamics, fusions may trigger social conflict and thus provide an opportunity to identify sources of social tension and mechanisms related to its alleviation. We characterized behavioral and endocrine responses of captive female bonobos (Pan paniscus) to fusions within a zoo facility designed to simulate naturalistic fission-fusion social dynamics. We compared urinary cortisol levels and frequencies of aggression, grooming and socio-sexual interactions between female bonobos while in stable sub-groups and when one "joiner" was reunited with the "residents" of another sub-group. We hypothesized that fusions would trigger increases in aggression and cortisol levels among reunited joiners and resident females. We further predicted that females who face more uncertainty in their social interactions following fusions may use grooming and/or socio-sexual behavior to reduce social tension and aggression. The only aggression on reunion days occurred between reunited females, but frequencies of aggression remained low across non-reunion and reunion days, and there was no effect of fusions on cortisol levels. Fusions did not influence patterns of grooming, but there were increases in socio-sexual solicitations and socio-sexual interactions between joiners and resident females. Joiners who had been separated from residents for longer received the most solicitations, but were also more selective in their acceptance of solicitations and preferred to have socio-sexual interactions with higher-ranking residents. Our results suggest that socio-sexual interactions play a role in reintegrating female bonobos into social groups following fusions. In addition, females who receive a high number of solicitations are able to gain more control over their socio-sexual interactions and may use socio-sexual interactions for other purposes, such as to enhance their social standing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of a GLMM modeling the proportion of solicitations on reunion days that led to socio-sexual interactions.Solicitations by joiners were almost always accepted, while solicitations by residents were more likely to be rejected (P = 0.002). In addition, solicitations by higher-ranking females were more likely to be accepted (P = 0.014). Box plots as in Fig 1. Dashed lines indicate the expected values based on the corresponding model.
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pone.0127305.g003: Results of a GLMM modeling the proportion of solicitations on reunion days that led to socio-sexual interactions.Solicitations by joiners were almost always accepted, while solicitations by residents were more likely to be rejected (P = 0.002). In addition, solicitations by higher-ranking females were more likely to be accepted (P = 0.014). Box plots as in Fig 1. Dashed lines indicate the expected values based on the corresponding model.

Mentions: On reunion days, 68.1% of female intra-sexual solicitations were followed by genital contacts or mounting, while the rest were rejected. Residents rejected only 12.2% (N = 5) of solicitations that they received from joiners, while joiners rejected 42.7% (N = 32) of solicitations from residents (GLMM, estimate ± SE = -2.89 ± 0.94, P < 0.01, Fig 3). Joiners and residents were also more likely to reject solicitations from lower-ranking females (GLMM, estimate ± SE = -2.08 ± 0.85, P = 0.01, Fig 3). Acceptance of solicitations was not influenced by the amount of time that the pair had been separated, or by the occurrence of aggression between the pair (Table 2).


Welcome Back: Responses of Female Bonobos (Pan paniscus) to Fusions.

Moscovice LR, Deschner T, Hohmann G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Results of a GLMM modeling the proportion of solicitations on reunion days that led to socio-sexual interactions.Solicitations by joiners were almost always accepted, while solicitations by residents were more likely to be rejected (P = 0.002). In addition, solicitations by higher-ranking females were more likely to be accepted (P = 0.014). Box plots as in Fig 1. Dashed lines indicate the expected values based on the corresponding model.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440773&req=5

pone.0127305.g003: Results of a GLMM modeling the proportion of solicitations on reunion days that led to socio-sexual interactions.Solicitations by joiners were almost always accepted, while solicitations by residents were more likely to be rejected (P = 0.002). In addition, solicitations by higher-ranking females were more likely to be accepted (P = 0.014). Box plots as in Fig 1. Dashed lines indicate the expected values based on the corresponding model.
Mentions: On reunion days, 68.1% of female intra-sexual solicitations were followed by genital contacts or mounting, while the rest were rejected. Residents rejected only 12.2% (N = 5) of solicitations that they received from joiners, while joiners rejected 42.7% (N = 32) of solicitations from residents (GLMM, estimate ± SE = -2.89 ± 0.94, P < 0.01, Fig 3). Joiners and residents were also more likely to reject solicitations from lower-ranking females (GLMM, estimate ± SE = -2.08 ± 0.85, P = 0.01, Fig 3). Acceptance of solicitations was not influenced by the amount of time that the pair had been separated, or by the occurrence of aggression between the pair (Table 2).

Bottom Line: We compared urinary cortisol levels and frequencies of aggression, grooming and socio-sexual interactions between female bonobos while in stable sub-groups and when one "joiner" was reunited with the "residents" of another sub-group.Joiners who had been separated from residents for longer received the most solicitations, but were also more selective in their acceptance of solicitations and preferred to have socio-sexual interactions with higher-ranking residents.In addition, females who receive a high number of solicitations are able to gain more control over their socio-sexual interactions and may use socio-sexual interactions for other purposes, such as to enhance their social standing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
In species with a high degree of fission-fusion social dynamics, fusions may trigger social conflict and thus provide an opportunity to identify sources of social tension and mechanisms related to its alleviation. We characterized behavioral and endocrine responses of captive female bonobos (Pan paniscus) to fusions within a zoo facility designed to simulate naturalistic fission-fusion social dynamics. We compared urinary cortisol levels and frequencies of aggression, grooming and socio-sexual interactions between female bonobos while in stable sub-groups and when one "joiner" was reunited with the "residents" of another sub-group. We hypothesized that fusions would trigger increases in aggression and cortisol levels among reunited joiners and resident females. We further predicted that females who face more uncertainty in their social interactions following fusions may use grooming and/or socio-sexual behavior to reduce social tension and aggression. The only aggression on reunion days occurred between reunited females, but frequencies of aggression remained low across non-reunion and reunion days, and there was no effect of fusions on cortisol levels. Fusions did not influence patterns of grooming, but there were increases in socio-sexual solicitations and socio-sexual interactions between joiners and resident females. Joiners who had been separated from residents for longer received the most solicitations, but were also more selective in their acceptance of solicitations and preferred to have socio-sexual interactions with higher-ranking residents. Our results suggest that socio-sexual interactions play a role in reintegrating female bonobos into social groups following fusions. In addition, females who receive a high number of solicitations are able to gain more control over their socio-sexual interactions and may use socio-sexual interactions for other purposes, such as to enhance their social standing.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus