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Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

Adler SA, Purup S, Hansen-Møller J, Thuen E, Steinshamn H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk.Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods.However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, 6630, Tingvoll, Norway; Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432, Ås, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens. However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Seasonal variation of enterolactone concentrations in milk.Mean values in bulk-tank milk from dairy farms with organic production system and short-term (ORG-SG) or long-term grassland management (ORG-LG) and dairy farms with conventional production system and short-term (CON-SG) or long-term grassland management (CON-LG) in indoor (n = 7, error bars indicate standard error of the mean).
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pone.0127187.g001: Seasonal variation of enterolactone concentrations in milk.Mean values in bulk-tank milk from dairy farms with organic production system and short-term (ORG-SG) or long-term grassland management (ORG-LG) and dairy farms with conventional production system and short-term (CON-SG) or long-term grassland management (CON-LG) in indoor (n = 7, error bars indicate standard error of the mean).

Mentions: Grassland management did not affect milk concentrations of total or individual lignans. Compared with milk from CON-farms, milk from ORG-farms had higher concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (P = 0.008), enterodiol (P = 0.006), enterolactone (P <0.001) and total lignans (P <0.001). Milk concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (P <0.001) and matairesinol (P <0.001) were higher during the indoor-feeding periods, whereas the concentrations of enterodiol (P = 0.01), enterolactone (P <0.001) and total lignans (P <0.001) were higher during the outdoor-feeding periods. However, in August 2008 the concentrations of enterolactone were lower than in June and similar to the indoor feeding periods (Fig 1). Enterolactone was the lignan found in highest concentrations in milk samples from all farming systems (9 to 335 mg/kg milk).


Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

Adler SA, Purup S, Hansen-Møller J, Thuen E, Steinshamn H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Seasonal variation of enterolactone concentrations in milk.Mean values in bulk-tank milk from dairy farms with organic production system and short-term (ORG-SG) or long-term grassland management (ORG-LG) and dairy farms with conventional production system and short-term (CON-SG) or long-term grassland management (CON-LG) in indoor (n = 7, error bars indicate standard error of the mean).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440760&req=5

pone.0127187.g001: Seasonal variation of enterolactone concentrations in milk.Mean values in bulk-tank milk from dairy farms with organic production system and short-term (ORG-SG) or long-term grassland management (ORG-LG) and dairy farms with conventional production system and short-term (CON-SG) or long-term grassland management (CON-LG) in indoor (n = 7, error bars indicate standard error of the mean).
Mentions: Grassland management did not affect milk concentrations of total or individual lignans. Compared with milk from CON-farms, milk from ORG-farms had higher concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (P = 0.008), enterodiol (P = 0.006), enterolactone (P <0.001) and total lignans (P <0.001). Milk concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (P <0.001) and matairesinol (P <0.001) were higher during the indoor-feeding periods, whereas the concentrations of enterodiol (P = 0.01), enterolactone (P <0.001) and total lignans (P <0.001) were higher during the outdoor-feeding periods. However, in August 2008 the concentrations of enterolactone were lower than in June and similar to the indoor feeding periods (Fig 1). Enterolactone was the lignan found in highest concentrations in milk samples from all farming systems (9 to 335 mg/kg milk).

Bottom Line: The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk.Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods.However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioforsk-Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, 6630, Tingvoll, Norway; Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432, Ås, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens. However, compared to soy products, milk concentrations of phytoestrogens are low and future studies are required to investigate if the intake of phytoestrogens from dairy products has physiological effects in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus