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Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

Frewen PA, Lanius RA - J Trauma Dissociation (2014)

Bottom Line: Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion.The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience , University of Western Ontario , London , Ontario , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

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Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are less intercorrelated in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue). Notes. Please see Tables 1 and 2 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Results from Study 1 below diagonal, and results from Study 2 above the diagonal.
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Figure 0003: Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are less intercorrelated in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue). Notes. Please see Tables 1 and 2 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Results from Study 1 below diagonal, and results from Study 2 above the diagonal.

Mentions: Figure 3 (above the diagonal) presents the intercorrelations observed between the NWC and TRASC forms of each symptom dimension of the 4-D model. Consistent with Study 1 results and predictions, NWC symptoms of distress were again more highly intercorrelated (dark blue cells; range = .37 ≤ r ≤ .78, Mr = .53, SDr = .15) in comparison with symptoms of TRASC (dark red cells; range = .08 ≤ r ≤ .49, Mr = .24, SDr = .16). Symptoms of TRASC were also generally not strongly correlated, on average, with NWC symptoms of distress (grey cells; range = .07 ≤ r ≤ .62, Mr = .35, SDr = .18), particularly in the case of voice hearing.


Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

Frewen PA, Lanius RA - J Trauma Dissociation (2014)

Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are less intercorrelated in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue). Notes. Please see Tables 1 and 2 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Results from Study 1 below diagonal, and results from Study 2 above the diagonal.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440663&req=5

Figure 0003: Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are less intercorrelated in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue). Notes. Please see Tables 1 and 2 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Results from Study 1 below diagonal, and results from Study 2 above the diagonal.
Mentions: Figure 3 (above the diagonal) presents the intercorrelations observed between the NWC and TRASC forms of each symptom dimension of the 4-D model. Consistent with Study 1 results and predictions, NWC symptoms of distress were again more highly intercorrelated (dark blue cells; range = .37 ≤ r ≤ .78, Mr = .53, SDr = .15) in comparison with symptoms of TRASC (dark red cells; range = .08 ≤ r ≤ .49, Mr = .24, SDr = .16). Symptoms of TRASC were also generally not strongly correlated, on average, with NWC symptoms of distress (grey cells; range = .07 ≤ r ≤ .62, Mr = .35, SDr = .18), particularly in the case of voice hearing.

Bottom Line: Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion.The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience , University of Western Ontario , London , Ontario , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus