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Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

Frewen PA, Lanius RA - J Trauma Dissociation (2014)

Bottom Line: Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion.The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience , University of Western Ontario , London , Ontario , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

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Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are endorsed less frequently in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue) (data from Study 1). Notes. Please see Table 1 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Error bars denote SD which is also reported in brackets. Differing degrees of freedom due to missing data.
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Figure 0002: Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are endorsed less frequently in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue) (data from Study 1). Notes. Please see Table 1 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Error bars denote SD which is also reported in brackets. Differing degrees of freedom due to missing data.

Mentions: Comparisons of the frequency ratings obtained for the NWC versus TRASC symptoms for each dimension of the 4-D model are presented in Figure 2 (blue vs. red bars, respectively). Consistent with predictions, in each case, NWC symptoms of distress were endorsed more frequently than were TRASC. See Figure 2 for statistics; all comparisons were highly statistically significant (p < .001) and yielded effect sizes in the large range (d′ > .80).FIGURE 2


Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

Frewen PA, Lanius RA - J Trauma Dissociation (2014)

Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are endorsed less frequently in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue) (data from Study 1). Notes. Please see Table 1 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Error bars denote SD which is also reported in brackets. Differing degrees of freedom due to missing data.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440663&req=5

Figure 0002: Posttraumatic symptom dimensions of the consciousness of time, thought, body, and emotion are endorsed less frequently in trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) form (red) than in normal waking consciousness (NWC) form (blue) (data from Study 1). Notes. Please see Table 1 for survey items used to operationalize each symptom dimension. Error bars denote SD which is also reported in brackets. Differing degrees of freedom due to missing data.
Mentions: Comparisons of the frequency ratings obtained for the NWC versus TRASC symptoms for each dimension of the 4-D model are presented in Figure 2 (blue vs. red bars, respectively). Consistent with predictions, in each case, NWC symptoms of distress were endorsed more frequently than were TRASC. See Figure 2 for statistics; all comparisons were highly statistically significant (p < .001) and yielded effect sizes in the large range (d′ > .80).FIGURE 2

Bottom Line: Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC).Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion.The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience , University of Western Ontario , London , Ontario , Canada.

ABSTRACT
Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus