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Ebola virus disease: from epidemiology to prophylaxis.

Liu WB, Li ZX, Du Y, Cao GW - Mil Med Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Thus, health care providers are facing danger of getting Ebola virus infection.To date, vaccines, drugs and/or therapies to prevent Ebola virus infection or treat EVD are limited.The military can orchestrate efficient care to mass EVD patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 China.

ABSTRACT
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to spread through West Africa. Since the first report of EVD in March 2014, the number of cases has increased rapidly, with the fatality rate of >50%. The most prevalent Ebola virus belongs to the species of Zaire ebolavirus, with a fatality rate as high as 90%. Although there were cases introduced into other continents, Africa is the endemic area where fruit bats and apes are suspected to be Ebola virus carriers. The virus might be transmitted from the host animals to humans if humans consume raw or not fully cooked and contaminated meats. However, human-to-human transmission via close contact is the major route of current outbreaks. EVD can occur during any season and affect people of any race and age group. Direct contact with body fluids of EVD patients or living in contaminated environments greatly increases the risk of being infected. Transmission via aerosol less likely, but transmission via virus-containing droplets is possible in humans. Thus, health care providers are facing danger of getting Ebola virus infection. To date, vaccines, drugs and/or therapies to prevent Ebola virus infection or treat EVD are limited. Medical workers should follow the current standard prophylactic procedures. The military can orchestrate efficient care to mass EVD patients. Although it is necessary to speed up the pace of developing effective vaccine and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of EVD, public health prevention and management should be important issue at present to control the spread of this disease cost-effectively.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Case confirmation: Ebola virus disease.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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Fig1: Case confirmation: Ebola virus disease.

Mentions: Sufficient political support from the government is crucial for the prevention and control of the Ebola epidemic. First, a strong public health infrastructure and medical reserve should be established and improved. Most severe EVD epidemics occurred in areas where the health systems were overwhelmed or failed to identify and isolate the infection cases in a timely fashion [57]. Second, contact tracing and quarantine policies should be strengthened. Briefly, persons of a close contact with EVD patient should be monitored if the related symptoms are present within 21 days. New cases should be identified and isolated quickly, and the cycle should be repeated until no patient emerges. A well-designed and appropriately operated disease surveillance system should be in place when a suspected case is reported (Figure 1). Third, considering the absence of effective treatment and the high case fatality, it is reasonable to circumvent research ethics and authorize the promising experimental vaccines or drugs for emergency use. Lastly, epidemiological and clinical data of Ebola should be collected vigorously and systematically in the endemic areas. This is the basis of epidemiological or genetic surveillance and relies on the coordination of public organizations and agencies [29].Figure 1


Ebola virus disease: from epidemiology to prophylaxis.

Liu WB, Li ZX, Du Y, Cao GW - Mil Med Res (2015)

Case confirmation: Ebola virus disease.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440555&req=5

Fig1: Case confirmation: Ebola virus disease.
Mentions: Sufficient political support from the government is crucial for the prevention and control of the Ebola epidemic. First, a strong public health infrastructure and medical reserve should be established and improved. Most severe EVD epidemics occurred in areas where the health systems were overwhelmed or failed to identify and isolate the infection cases in a timely fashion [57]. Second, contact tracing and quarantine policies should be strengthened. Briefly, persons of a close contact with EVD patient should be monitored if the related symptoms are present within 21 days. New cases should be identified and isolated quickly, and the cycle should be repeated until no patient emerges. A well-designed and appropriately operated disease surveillance system should be in place when a suspected case is reported (Figure 1). Third, considering the absence of effective treatment and the high case fatality, it is reasonable to circumvent research ethics and authorize the promising experimental vaccines or drugs for emergency use. Lastly, epidemiological and clinical data of Ebola should be collected vigorously and systematically in the endemic areas. This is the basis of epidemiological or genetic surveillance and relies on the coordination of public organizations and agencies [29].Figure 1

Bottom Line: Thus, health care providers are facing danger of getting Ebola virus infection.To date, vaccines, drugs and/or therapies to prevent Ebola virus infection or treat EVD are limited.The military can orchestrate efficient care to mass EVD patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 China.

ABSTRACT
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to spread through West Africa. Since the first report of EVD in March 2014, the number of cases has increased rapidly, with the fatality rate of >50%. The most prevalent Ebola virus belongs to the species of Zaire ebolavirus, with a fatality rate as high as 90%. Although there were cases introduced into other continents, Africa is the endemic area where fruit bats and apes are suspected to be Ebola virus carriers. The virus might be transmitted from the host animals to humans if humans consume raw or not fully cooked and contaminated meats. However, human-to-human transmission via close contact is the major route of current outbreaks. EVD can occur during any season and affect people of any race and age group. Direct contact with body fluids of EVD patients or living in contaminated environments greatly increases the risk of being infected. Transmission via aerosol less likely, but transmission via virus-containing droplets is possible in humans. Thus, health care providers are facing danger of getting Ebola virus infection. To date, vaccines, drugs and/or therapies to prevent Ebola virus infection or treat EVD are limited. Medical workers should follow the current standard prophylactic procedures. The military can orchestrate efficient care to mass EVD patients. Although it is necessary to speed up the pace of developing effective vaccine and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of EVD, public health prevention and management should be important issue at present to control the spread of this disease cost-effectively.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus