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Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

Wang YF, Jing XJ, Liu F, Li ML, Long ZL, Yan JH, Chen HF - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks.The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions.Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Center for Information in BioMedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

ABSTRACT
The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT.

No MeSH data available.


The program of the mixed design attention network test consisted of six blocks. The effects of alerting (A), orienting (O), and executive control (E) networks were tested in separated blocks to avoid interactions among them. The inter-network relationships were also assessed in independent blocks. For A and E, central targets were used to exclude the orienting effect; for O and E, cues were canceled to exclude the alerting effect; for A and O, incongruent targets were eliminated to avoid the conflict effect.
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f4: The program of the mixed design attention network test consisted of six blocks. The effects of alerting (A), orienting (O), and executive control (E) networks were tested in separated blocks to avoid interactions among them. The inter-network relationships were also assessed in independent blocks. For A and E, central targets were used to exclude the orienting effect; for O and E, cues were canceled to exclude the alerting effect; for A and O, incongruent targets were eliminated to avoid the conflict effect.

Mentions: All participants completed six blocks of the mixed design attention network test. The order of six blocks was randomized. Each effect block contained 4 practice trials and 48 experimental trials, while each interaction block included 4 practice trials and 96 experimental trials. Eighteen cue-target conditions were involved in the task. This design advanced our previous study12 to all directional INRs. Participants were seated 70 cm from the monitor and were asked to focus on the fixation throughout the experiment and, during practice. As shown in Fig. 4, each trial began with a fixation lasting for 400–1000 ms. A 100 ms fixation (for O, E and half of the trials of A) or asterisk (for half of the trials of A) was followed. After a 300 ms delay, the target (central or spatial, congruent or incongruent) was presented for 1700 ms or lasted until the participant pressed a key. Lastly, another delay was presented to insure the overall time of the trial from cue to the end of the trial was 3000 ms.


Reliable Attention Network Scores and Mutually Inhibited Inter-network Relationships Revealed by Mixed Design and Non-orthogonal Method.

Wang YF, Jing XJ, Liu F, Li ML, Long ZL, Yan JH, Chen HF - Sci Rep (2015)

The program of the mixed design attention network test consisted of six blocks. The effects of alerting (A), orienting (O), and executive control (E) networks were tested in separated blocks to avoid interactions among them. The inter-network relationships were also assessed in independent blocks. For A and E, central targets were used to exclude the orienting effect; for O and E, cues were canceled to exclude the alerting effect; for A and O, incongruent targets were eliminated to avoid the conflict effect.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440527&req=5

f4: The program of the mixed design attention network test consisted of six blocks. The effects of alerting (A), orienting (O), and executive control (E) networks were tested in separated blocks to avoid interactions among them. The inter-network relationships were also assessed in independent blocks. For A and E, central targets were used to exclude the orienting effect; for O and E, cues were canceled to exclude the alerting effect; for A and O, incongruent targets were eliminated to avoid the conflict effect.
Mentions: All participants completed six blocks of the mixed design attention network test. The order of six blocks was randomized. Each effect block contained 4 practice trials and 48 experimental trials, while each interaction block included 4 practice trials and 96 experimental trials. Eighteen cue-target conditions were involved in the task. This design advanced our previous study12 to all directional INRs. Participants were seated 70 cm from the monitor and were asked to focus on the fixation throughout the experiment and, during practice. As shown in Fig. 4, each trial began with a fixation lasting for 400–1000 ms. A 100 ms fixation (for O, E and half of the trials of A) or asterisk (for half of the trials of A) was followed. After a 300 ms delay, the target (central or spatial, congruent or incongruent) was presented for 1700 ms or lasted until the participant pressed a key. Lastly, another delay was presented to insure the overall time of the trial from cue to the end of the trial was 3000 ms.

Bottom Line: The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks.The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions.Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Center for Information in BioMedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

ABSTRACT
The attention system can be divided into alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. The efficiency and independence of attention networks have been widely tested with the attention network test (ANT) and its revised versions. However, many studies have failed to find effects of attention network scores (ANSs) and inter-network relationships (INRs). Moreover, the low reliability of ANSs can not meet the demands of theoretical and empirical investigations. Two methodological factors (the inter-trial influence in the event-related design and the inter-network interference in orthogonal contrast) may be responsible for the unreliability of ANT. In this study, we combined the mixed design and non-orthogonal method to explore ANSs and directional INRs. With a small number of trials, we obtained reliable and independent ANSs (split-half reliability of alerting: 0.684; orienting: 0.588; and executive control: 0.616), suggesting an individual and specific attention system. Furthermore, mutual inhibition was observed when two networks were operated simultaneously, indicating a differentiated but integrated attention system. Overall, the reliable and individual specific ANSs and mutually inhibited INRs provide novel insight into the understanding of the developmental, physiological and pathological mechanisms of attention networks, and can benefit future experimental and clinical investigations of attention using ANT.

No MeSH data available.