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Cell or cell membrane-based drug delivery systems.

Tan S, Wu T, Zhang D, Zhang Z - Theranostics (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS.In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles.We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Tongji School of Pharmacy; ; 2. National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine; ; 3. Hubei Engineering Research Center for Novel DDS, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P R China.

ABSTRACT
Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science. The synthetic materials, either organic or inorganic, are found to be with more or less immunogenicity and/or toxicity. The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles. We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neural stem cell-mediated intratumoral delivery of AuNRs. (a) Schematic depicting AuNR uptake by NSCs. (b-g) Comparison of free AuNR and NSC.AuNR distribution after intratumoral injection. Three days after AuNR injection, tumors were sectioned. Every 150 μm, sections were imaged using dark-field microscopy. (b, c) Tiled, flattened, dark-field micrographs of entire cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). AuNRs are visible as dense, bright gold signals. (c, d) Mapped cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). (f, g) 3D projection of all mapped AuNR (red) and tumor (blue) traces generated using Reconstruct software in tumors that received free AuNR (f) or NSC.AuNR (g). Scale bar = 1 mm and applies to all images. Reproduced with permission87. Copyright 2014, ACS.
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Figure 4: Neural stem cell-mediated intratumoral delivery of AuNRs. (a) Schematic depicting AuNR uptake by NSCs. (b-g) Comparison of free AuNR and NSC.AuNR distribution after intratumoral injection. Three days after AuNR injection, tumors were sectioned. Every 150 μm, sections were imaged using dark-field microscopy. (b, c) Tiled, flattened, dark-field micrographs of entire cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). AuNRs are visible as dense, bright gold signals. (c, d) Mapped cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). (f, g) 3D projection of all mapped AuNR (red) and tumor (blue) traces generated using Reconstruct software in tumors that received free AuNR (f) or NSC.AuNR (g). Scale bar = 1 mm and applies to all images. Reproduced with permission87. Copyright 2014, ACS.

Mentions: Many types of SCs, including MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs), have been proved with the ability of migrating towards tumor microenvironment so they are applied widely in tumor-specific drug delivery24. For example, SCs with genetic modification could secret therapeutic agents in tumor tissue, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)76, 77, interferon-β (IFN-β)78, 79, IL12/1880-82, to inhibit the growth of the tumor. Recently, a new development was to use SCs as the NPs carriers83-89. The NPs-loaded SCs would migrate towards to tumor tissue and thus caused the accumulation of NPs. This “Trojan horse” method seemed to be effective and had been implemented in various cases. Two approaches were reported to achieve the tumor treatment. One is attaching the NPs on the surface of SCs. DOX loaded anti-CD73 or anti-CD90 conjugated silica nanorattle was anchored to MSCs through specific antibody-antigen interaction. These modified MSCs can target the U251 glioma tumor tissue, induce enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibit the tumor metastasis83. In another work, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded pH sensitive NPs were coupled onto the surface of NSCs via acid cleavage sialic acid moieties-hydrazone-biotin-avidin linker84. These NSC-NP conjugates could overcome the high interstitial pressure in tumor and improve the distribution and retention of the NPs. The other one is encapsulating NPs into SCs. Therapeutic nanoparticle, meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin loaded polymeric NPs or purpurin-18 loaded porous hollow silica NPs, could be entrapped in MSCs, which accumulated in tumor and delayed the tumor growth by photodynamic therapy85. Au NPs or Au nanorods (AuNRs) were phagocytosed by NSCs with more wide tumor distribution compared to free Au NPs/NRs thus achieving a better photothermal therapy efficiency (Figure 4)86, 87. The MSCs containing multifunctional silica NPs were applied in the tumor multimodality imaging, including optical, PET and MR imaging88. Despite these progresses, some concerns pointed out that SCs may promote the tumor growth or even differentiate into tumor24, 90-92. It's necessary to carefully choose SC type in designing the SC-based delivery system.


Cell or cell membrane-based drug delivery systems.

Tan S, Wu T, Zhang D, Zhang Z - Theranostics (2015)

Neural stem cell-mediated intratumoral delivery of AuNRs. (a) Schematic depicting AuNR uptake by NSCs. (b-g) Comparison of free AuNR and NSC.AuNR distribution after intratumoral injection. Three days after AuNR injection, tumors were sectioned. Every 150 μm, sections were imaged using dark-field microscopy. (b, c) Tiled, flattened, dark-field micrographs of entire cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). AuNRs are visible as dense, bright gold signals. (c, d) Mapped cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). (f, g) 3D projection of all mapped AuNR (red) and tumor (blue) traces generated using Reconstruct software in tumors that received free AuNR (f) or NSC.AuNR (g). Scale bar = 1 mm and applies to all images. Reproduced with permission87. Copyright 2014, ACS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 4: Neural stem cell-mediated intratumoral delivery of AuNRs. (a) Schematic depicting AuNR uptake by NSCs. (b-g) Comparison of free AuNR and NSC.AuNR distribution after intratumoral injection. Three days after AuNR injection, tumors were sectioned. Every 150 μm, sections were imaged using dark-field microscopy. (b, c) Tiled, flattened, dark-field micrographs of entire cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). AuNRs are visible as dense, bright gold signals. (c, d) Mapped cross sections of tumors injected with free AuNRs (d) or NSC.AuNRs (e). (f, g) 3D projection of all mapped AuNR (red) and tumor (blue) traces generated using Reconstruct software in tumors that received free AuNR (f) or NSC.AuNR (g). Scale bar = 1 mm and applies to all images. Reproduced with permission87. Copyright 2014, ACS.
Mentions: Many types of SCs, including MSCs and neural stem cells (NSCs), have been proved with the ability of migrating towards tumor microenvironment so they are applied widely in tumor-specific drug delivery24. For example, SCs with genetic modification could secret therapeutic agents in tumor tissue, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)76, 77, interferon-β (IFN-β)78, 79, IL12/1880-82, to inhibit the growth of the tumor. Recently, a new development was to use SCs as the NPs carriers83-89. The NPs-loaded SCs would migrate towards to tumor tissue and thus caused the accumulation of NPs. This “Trojan horse” method seemed to be effective and had been implemented in various cases. Two approaches were reported to achieve the tumor treatment. One is attaching the NPs on the surface of SCs. DOX loaded anti-CD73 or anti-CD90 conjugated silica nanorattle was anchored to MSCs through specific antibody-antigen interaction. These modified MSCs can target the U251 glioma tumor tissue, induce enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibit the tumor metastasis83. In another work, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded pH sensitive NPs were coupled onto the surface of NSCs via acid cleavage sialic acid moieties-hydrazone-biotin-avidin linker84. These NSC-NP conjugates could overcome the high interstitial pressure in tumor and improve the distribution and retention of the NPs. The other one is encapsulating NPs into SCs. Therapeutic nanoparticle, meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin loaded polymeric NPs or purpurin-18 loaded porous hollow silica NPs, could be entrapped in MSCs, which accumulated in tumor and delayed the tumor growth by photodynamic therapy85. Au NPs or Au nanorods (AuNRs) were phagocytosed by NSCs with more wide tumor distribution compared to free Au NPs/NRs thus achieving a better photothermal therapy efficiency (Figure 4)86, 87. The MSCs containing multifunctional silica NPs were applied in the tumor multimodality imaging, including optical, PET and MR imaging88. Despite these progresses, some concerns pointed out that SCs may promote the tumor growth or even differentiate into tumor24, 90-92. It's necessary to carefully choose SC type in designing the SC-based delivery system.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS.In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles.We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Tongji School of Pharmacy; ; 2. National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine; ; 3. Hubei Engineering Research Center for Novel DDS, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P R China.

ABSTRACT
Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science. The synthetic materials, either organic or inorganic, are found to be with more or less immunogenicity and/or toxicity. The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles. We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus