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The usefulness of ozone treatment in spinal pain.

Bocci V, Borrelli E, Zanardi I, Travagli V - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: An in-depth screening of primary sources of information online - via SciFinder Scholar, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases as well as Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews - was performed.In this review, the most significant papers of the last 25 years are presented and their proposals critically evaluated, regardless of the bibliometric impact of the journals.This paper finds favors the full insertion of ozone therapy into pharmaceutical sciences, rather than as either an alternative or an esoteric approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this review is to elucidate the biochemical, molecular, immunological, and pharmaceutical mechanisms of action of ozone dissolved in biological fluids. Studies performed during the last two decades allow the drawing of a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending the integration of ozone therapy for spinal pain.

Methods: An in-depth screening of primary sources of information online - via SciFinder Scholar, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases as well as Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews - was performed. In this review, the most significant papers of the last 25 years are presented and their proposals critically evaluated, regardless of the bibliometric impact of the journals.

Results: The efficacy of standard treatments combined with the unique capacity of ozone therapy to reactivate the innate antioxidant system is the key to correcting the oxidative stress typical of chronic inflammatory diseases. Pain pathways and control systems of algesic signals after ozone administration are described.

Conclusion: This paper finds favors the full insertion of ozone therapy into pharmaceutical sciences, rather than as either an alternative or an esoteric approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of the mechanisms for the control of algesic signals. By releasing endorphins (End.), the enkephalinergic interneuron may inhibit the presynaptic connection of a neurocyte (C) of a spinal ganglion, which, under compression of a herniated disc, stimulates the release of substance P (SP). Endorphins can inhibit the transmission of the algesic signal to neuron D (D), hence to the ascending spinal-thalamic fibers. The monoaminergic or serotonergic neuron A (A), as a component of antinociceptive descending fibers, can reinforce the analgesic effect of neuron B (B). Moreover, the localized oxygenation and analgesia are most important because they permit muscle relaxation and vasodilation, thus a reactivation of muscle metabolism, by favoring oxidation of lactate, neutralization of acidosis, increased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, Ca2+ reuptake, and reabsorption of edema.Note: Copyright ©2011. Bocci V. Ozone: A New Medical Drug. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. Reprinted with the kind permission of Springer Science and Business.6
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f4-dddt-9-2677: Scheme of the mechanisms for the control of algesic signals. By releasing endorphins (End.), the enkephalinergic interneuron may inhibit the presynaptic connection of a neurocyte (C) of a spinal ganglion, which, under compression of a herniated disc, stimulates the release of substance P (SP). Endorphins can inhibit the transmission of the algesic signal to neuron D (D), hence to the ascending spinal-thalamic fibers. The monoaminergic or serotonergic neuron A (A), as a component of antinociceptive descending fibers, can reinforce the analgesic effect of neuron B (B). Moreover, the localized oxygenation and analgesia are most important because they permit muscle relaxation and vasodilation, thus a reactivation of muscle metabolism, by favoring oxidation of lactate, neutralization of acidosis, increased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, Ca2+ reuptake, and reabsorption of edema.Note: Copyright ©2011. Bocci V. Ozone: A New Medical Drug. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. Reprinted with the kind permission of Springer Science and Business.6

Mentions: Besides the release of endorphins, neurons present in the descending pathways modulate or/and reduce nociception by releasing neurotransmitters such as (1) serotonin, typically present in many raphe neurons that end in dorsal horn; and (2) norepinephrine, produced by neurons present in the nucleus coeruleus of the pons (Figure 4).


The usefulness of ozone treatment in spinal pain.

Bocci V, Borrelli E, Zanardi I, Travagli V - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Scheme of the mechanisms for the control of algesic signals. By releasing endorphins (End.), the enkephalinergic interneuron may inhibit the presynaptic connection of a neurocyte (C) of a spinal ganglion, which, under compression of a herniated disc, stimulates the release of substance P (SP). Endorphins can inhibit the transmission of the algesic signal to neuron D (D), hence to the ascending spinal-thalamic fibers. The monoaminergic or serotonergic neuron A (A), as a component of antinociceptive descending fibers, can reinforce the analgesic effect of neuron B (B). Moreover, the localized oxygenation and analgesia are most important because they permit muscle relaxation and vasodilation, thus a reactivation of muscle metabolism, by favoring oxidation of lactate, neutralization of acidosis, increased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, Ca2+ reuptake, and reabsorption of edema.Note: Copyright ©2011. Bocci V. Ozone: A New Medical Drug. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. Reprinted with the kind permission of Springer Science and Business.6
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440430&req=5

f4-dddt-9-2677: Scheme of the mechanisms for the control of algesic signals. By releasing endorphins (End.), the enkephalinergic interneuron may inhibit the presynaptic connection of a neurocyte (C) of a spinal ganglion, which, under compression of a herniated disc, stimulates the release of substance P (SP). Endorphins can inhibit the transmission of the algesic signal to neuron D (D), hence to the ascending spinal-thalamic fibers. The monoaminergic or serotonergic neuron A (A), as a component of antinociceptive descending fibers, can reinforce the analgesic effect of neuron B (B). Moreover, the localized oxygenation and analgesia are most important because they permit muscle relaxation and vasodilation, thus a reactivation of muscle metabolism, by favoring oxidation of lactate, neutralization of acidosis, increased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, Ca2+ reuptake, and reabsorption of edema.Note: Copyright ©2011. Bocci V. Ozone: A New Medical Drug. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer; 2011. Reprinted with the kind permission of Springer Science and Business.6
Mentions: Besides the release of endorphins, neurons present in the descending pathways modulate or/and reduce nociception by releasing neurotransmitters such as (1) serotonin, typically present in many raphe neurons that end in dorsal horn; and (2) norepinephrine, produced by neurons present in the nucleus coeruleus of the pons (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: An in-depth screening of primary sources of information online - via SciFinder Scholar, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases as well as Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews - was performed.In this review, the most significant papers of the last 25 years are presented and their proposals critically evaluated, regardless of the bibliometric impact of the journals.This paper finds favors the full insertion of ozone therapy into pharmaceutical sciences, rather than as either an alternative or an esoteric approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Università degli Studi di Siena, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this review is to elucidate the biochemical, molecular, immunological, and pharmaceutical mechanisms of action of ozone dissolved in biological fluids. Studies performed during the last two decades allow the drawing of a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending the integration of ozone therapy for spinal pain.

Methods: An in-depth screening of primary sources of information online - via SciFinder Scholar, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases as well as Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews - was performed. In this review, the most significant papers of the last 25 years are presented and their proposals critically evaluated, regardless of the bibliometric impact of the journals.

Results: The efficacy of standard treatments combined with the unique capacity of ozone therapy to reactivate the innate antioxidant system is the key to correcting the oxidative stress typical of chronic inflammatory diseases. Pain pathways and control systems of algesic signals after ozone administration are described.

Conclusion: This paper finds favors the full insertion of ozone therapy into pharmaceutical sciences, rather than as either an alternative or an esoteric approach.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus