Limits...
Comprehensive confocal endomicroscopy of the esophagus in vivo.

Kang D, Schlachter SC, Carruth RW, Kim M, Wu T, Tabatabaei N, Vacas-Jacques P, Shishkov M, Woods K, Sauk JS, Leung J, Nishioka NS, Tearney GJ - Endosc Int Open (2014)

Bottom Line: Very large confocal microscopy images (length = 5 cm; circumference = 2.2 cm) of swine esophagus from three imaging depths, spanning a total area of 33 cm(2), were obtained in about 2 minutes.SECM images enabled the visualization of cellular morphology of the swine esophagus, including stratified squamous cell nuclei, basal cells, and collagen within the lamina propria.The results from this study suggest that the SECM technology can rapidly provide large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus in vivo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Massachusetts General Hospital - Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Boston, MA.

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims: Biopsy sampling error can be a problem for the diagnosis of certain gastrointestinal tract diseases. Spectrally-encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has the potential to overcome sampling error by imaging large regions of gastrointestinal tract tissues. The aim of this study was to test a recently developed SECM endoscopic probe for comprehensively imaging large segments of the esophagus at the microscopic level in vivo.

Methods: Topical acetic acid was endoscopically applied to the esophagus of a normal living swine. The 7 mm diameter SECM endoscopic probe was transorally introduced into the esophagus over a wire. Optics within the SECM probe were helically scanned over a 5 cm length of the esophagus. Confocal microscopy data was displayed and stored in real time.

Results: Very large confocal microscopy images (length = 5 cm; circumference = 2.2 cm) of swine esophagus from three imaging depths, spanning a total area of 33 cm(2), were obtained in about 2 minutes. SECM images enabled the visualization of cellular morphology of the swine esophagus, including stratified squamous cell nuclei, basal cells, and collagen within the lamina propria.

Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that the SECM technology can rapidly provide large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus in vivo. When applied to human subjects, the unique comprehensive, microscopic imaging capabilities of this technology may be utilized for improving the screening and surveillance of various esophageal diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

 Schematics and photo of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. a Overview of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. An SECM endoscopic probe is inserted into an imaging tube, which is a transparent semi-flexible plastic tube. The imaging tube is introduced to the esophagus transorally. A SECM beam is focused into the esophageal tissue. While SECM images are continuously acquired, the SECM probe is helically scanned by a rotary junction and translation stage to image a large area of the esophagus. b Detailed schematic of the SECM probe optics. In the probe optics, light from the fiber is collimated by a collimation lens and diffracted by a grating. The diffracted light is focused by an objective lens (water immersion; numerical aperture = 0.5) into a 280-µm-long line. c Photo of the SECM optical probe inside the imaging tube. The diameter of the probe is 5.9 mm, and the rigid length is 30 mm. The outer diameter of the imaging tube is 7.0 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440396&req=5

FI047-1:  Schematics and photo of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. a Overview of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. An SECM endoscopic probe is inserted into an imaging tube, which is a transparent semi-flexible plastic tube. The imaging tube is introduced to the esophagus transorally. A SECM beam is focused into the esophageal tissue. While SECM images are continuously acquired, the SECM probe is helically scanned by a rotary junction and translation stage to image a large area of the esophagus. b Detailed schematic of the SECM probe optics. In the probe optics, light from the fiber is collimated by a collimation lens and diffracted by a grating. The diffracted light is focused by an objective lens (water immersion; numerical aperture = 0.5) into a 280-µm-long line. c Photo of the SECM optical probe inside the imaging tube. The diameter of the probe is 5.9 mm, and the rigid length is 30 mm. The outer diameter of the imaging tube is 7.0 mm.

Mentions: We conducted comprehensive confocal microscopy using an SECM endoscopic imaging setup shown in Fig. 1. Near infrared light from the laser was delivered to the 7 mm diameter SECM probe inside the esophagus through a 2-m-long optical fiber. The light was then focused inside the tissue by the SECM probe optics. The reflected light from the tissue was collected by the same SECM probe optics and delivered back to the SECM system. The SECM endoscopic probe had a lateral resolution of 2.3 µm, an axial resolution of 17 µm, and a field size of 280 µm. The focal plane was located 100 µm below the tissue surface, and was slightly tilted to image multiple depths during a single scan 11. The line image of the tissue was acquired at the rate of 100 kHz, which resulted in the 1024 × 1024-pixel frame rate of 100 frames/sec. The SECM endoscopic probe was helically scanned at a rotation rate of 360 rpm and a pullback rate of 0.4 mm/sec to automatically obtain large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus.


Comprehensive confocal endomicroscopy of the esophagus in vivo.

Kang D, Schlachter SC, Carruth RW, Kim M, Wu T, Tabatabaei N, Vacas-Jacques P, Shishkov M, Woods K, Sauk JS, Leung J, Nishioka NS, Tearney GJ - Endosc Int Open (2014)

 Schematics and photo of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. a Overview of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. An SECM endoscopic probe is inserted into an imaging tube, which is a transparent semi-flexible plastic tube. The imaging tube is introduced to the esophagus transorally. A SECM beam is focused into the esophageal tissue. While SECM images are continuously acquired, the SECM probe is helically scanned by a rotary junction and translation stage to image a large area of the esophagus. b Detailed schematic of the SECM probe optics. In the probe optics, light from the fiber is collimated by a collimation lens and diffracted by a grating. The diffracted light is focused by an objective lens (water immersion; numerical aperture = 0.5) into a 280-µm-long line. c Photo of the SECM optical probe inside the imaging tube. The diameter of the probe is 5.9 mm, and the rigid length is 30 mm. The outer diameter of the imaging tube is 7.0 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440396&req=5

FI047-1:  Schematics and photo of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. a Overview of the SECM endoscopic imaging setup. An SECM endoscopic probe is inserted into an imaging tube, which is a transparent semi-flexible plastic tube. The imaging tube is introduced to the esophagus transorally. A SECM beam is focused into the esophageal tissue. While SECM images are continuously acquired, the SECM probe is helically scanned by a rotary junction and translation stage to image a large area of the esophagus. b Detailed schematic of the SECM probe optics. In the probe optics, light from the fiber is collimated by a collimation lens and diffracted by a grating. The diffracted light is focused by an objective lens (water immersion; numerical aperture = 0.5) into a 280-µm-long line. c Photo of the SECM optical probe inside the imaging tube. The diameter of the probe is 5.9 mm, and the rigid length is 30 mm. The outer diameter of the imaging tube is 7.0 mm.
Mentions: We conducted comprehensive confocal microscopy using an SECM endoscopic imaging setup shown in Fig. 1. Near infrared light from the laser was delivered to the 7 mm diameter SECM probe inside the esophagus through a 2-m-long optical fiber. The light was then focused inside the tissue by the SECM probe optics. The reflected light from the tissue was collected by the same SECM probe optics and delivered back to the SECM system. The SECM endoscopic probe had a lateral resolution of 2.3 µm, an axial resolution of 17 µm, and a field size of 280 µm. The focal plane was located 100 µm below the tissue surface, and was slightly tilted to image multiple depths during a single scan 11. The line image of the tissue was acquired at the rate of 100 kHz, which resulted in the 1024 × 1024-pixel frame rate of 100 frames/sec. The SECM endoscopic probe was helically scanned at a rotation rate of 360 rpm and a pullback rate of 0.4 mm/sec to automatically obtain large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus.

Bottom Line: Very large confocal microscopy images (length = 5 cm; circumference = 2.2 cm) of swine esophagus from three imaging depths, spanning a total area of 33 cm(2), were obtained in about 2 minutes.SECM images enabled the visualization of cellular morphology of the swine esophagus, including stratified squamous cell nuclei, basal cells, and collagen within the lamina propria.The results from this study suggest that the SECM technology can rapidly provide large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus in vivo.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Massachusetts General Hospital - Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Boston, MA.

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims: Biopsy sampling error can be a problem for the diagnosis of certain gastrointestinal tract diseases. Spectrally-encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has the potential to overcome sampling error by imaging large regions of gastrointestinal tract tissues. The aim of this study was to test a recently developed SECM endoscopic probe for comprehensively imaging large segments of the esophagus at the microscopic level in vivo.

Methods: Topical acetic acid was endoscopically applied to the esophagus of a normal living swine. The 7 mm diameter SECM endoscopic probe was transorally introduced into the esophagus over a wire. Optics within the SECM probe were helically scanned over a 5 cm length of the esophagus. Confocal microscopy data was displayed and stored in real time.

Results: Very large confocal microscopy images (length = 5 cm; circumference = 2.2 cm) of swine esophagus from three imaging depths, spanning a total area of 33 cm(2), were obtained in about 2 minutes. SECM images enabled the visualization of cellular morphology of the swine esophagus, including stratified squamous cell nuclei, basal cells, and collagen within the lamina propria.

Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that the SECM technology can rapidly provide large, contiguous confocal microscopy images of the esophagus in vivo. When applied to human subjects, the unique comprehensive, microscopic imaging capabilities of this technology may be utilized for improving the screening and surveillance of various esophageal diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus