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Anti-microbial Use in Animals: How to Assess the Trade-offs.

Rushton J - Zoonoses Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals.In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence.Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group, Production and Population Health Department, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Disease Loss – Expenditure Frontier (adapted from Mclnerney, 1996)
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fig02: Disease Loss – Expenditure Frontier (adapted from Mclnerney, 1996)

Mentions: How do we balance the benefits from antimicrobials with the possible negative implications that could occur with misuse and overuse of antimicrobials. Economists have explored these trade-offs in animal health over the last 40 years. Mclnerney (1996) applied a theoretical production economics framework to animal disease comparing losses in production with expenditure on control. The greater the losses the lower the expenditure with a relationship between the two. Such a framework is useful in considering how a farmer would apply antimicrobials in their production system, the antimicrobials are an expenditure aimed at reducing losses in production. The level of application will not necessarily lead to the complete removal of the animal health problem, rather there is a point of equilibrium that relates to the value of the losses avoided and the costs of the treatment. Figure2 indicates some of the main points underpinning such a relationship.


Anti-microbial Use in Animals: How to Assess the Trade-offs.

Rushton J - Zoonoses Public Health (2015)

Disease Loss – Expenditure Frontier (adapted from Mclnerney, 1996)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4440385&req=5

fig02: Disease Loss – Expenditure Frontier (adapted from Mclnerney, 1996)
Mentions: How do we balance the benefits from antimicrobials with the possible negative implications that could occur with misuse and overuse of antimicrobials. Economists have explored these trade-offs in animal health over the last 40 years. Mclnerney (1996) applied a theoretical production economics framework to animal disease comparing losses in production with expenditure on control. The greater the losses the lower the expenditure with a relationship between the two. Such a framework is useful in considering how a farmer would apply antimicrobials in their production system, the antimicrobials are an expenditure aimed at reducing losses in production. The level of application will not necessarily lead to the complete removal of the animal health problem, rather there is a point of equilibrium that relates to the value of the losses avoided and the costs of the treatment. Figure2 indicates some of the main points underpinning such a relationship.

Bottom Line: The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals.In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence.Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Epidemiology Economics and Public Health Group, Production and Population Health Department, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus