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Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual Epichloë endophyte in Elymus species from western China.

Song H, Nan Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin.Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia.In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou, 730020, P. R. China; College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730020, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

No MeSH data available.


Maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic relationships of Epichloë species based on intron portions of tefA.MP trees were constructed in the PAUP 4.0b10 package. MP trees were estimated using a heuristic search with tree bisection-reconnection (TBR) branch swapping and 100 random addition replicates. Alignment gaps were treated as missing information. Nucleotide substitutions were unordered and unweighted. Bootstrap support values were calculated with 1000 replications. Numbers on branches are bootstrap values. Branches with bootstrap values >50% are shown. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values are listed first on each branch, followed by MP bootstrap values. Red, blue and orange colors indicate the Epichloë species from China, Europe and North America, respectively. The partial figure is showed, for the full image please see S2 Fig.
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pone.0127096.g002: Maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic relationships of Epichloë species based on intron portions of tefA.MP trees were constructed in the PAUP 4.0b10 package. MP trees were estimated using a heuristic search with tree bisection-reconnection (TBR) branch swapping and 100 random addition replicates. Alignment gaps were treated as missing information. Nucleotide substitutions were unordered and unweighted. Bootstrap support values were calculated with 1000 replications. Numbers on branches are bootstrap values. Branches with bootstrap values >50% are shown. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values are listed first on each branch, followed by MP bootstrap values. Red, blue and orange colors indicate the Epichloë species from China, Europe and North America, respectively. The partial figure is showed, for the full image please see S2 Fig.

Mentions: The topology of the tefA tree is consistent with that of the tubB tree. Isolates from western Chinese (asexual endophytes) and North American (sexual endophytes) Elymus species were grouped in different subclades: subclade III-tef, subclade IV-tef and subclade VI-tef, respectively (Fig 2 and S2 Fig). Subclade VI-tef contained 21 tefA sequences, including 15 asexual Epichloë endophytes from western Chinese Elymus species, three asexual E. sinica from Chinese Roegneria spp., two sexual E. liyangensis from Chinese Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis and one asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. E. sinica and E. liyangensis appear to be hybrids. The results of the tefA tree confirmed that the asexual Epichloë endophytes from western Chinese Elymus species are likely derived from the same ancestor with the asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum.


Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of asexual Epichloë endophyte in Elymus species from western China.

Song H, Nan Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic relationships of Epichloë species based on intron portions of tefA.MP trees were constructed in the PAUP 4.0b10 package. MP trees were estimated using a heuristic search with tree bisection-reconnection (TBR) branch swapping and 100 random addition replicates. Alignment gaps were treated as missing information. Nucleotide substitutions were unordered and unweighted. Bootstrap support values were calculated with 1000 replications. Numbers on branches are bootstrap values. Branches with bootstrap values >50% are shown. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values are listed first on each branch, followed by MP bootstrap values. Red, blue and orange colors indicate the Epichloë species from China, Europe and North America, respectively. The partial figure is showed, for the full image please see S2 Fig.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430518&req=5

pone.0127096.g002: Maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic relationships of Epichloë species based on intron portions of tefA.MP trees were constructed in the PAUP 4.0b10 package. MP trees were estimated using a heuristic search with tree bisection-reconnection (TBR) branch swapping and 100 random addition replicates. Alignment gaps were treated as missing information. Nucleotide substitutions were unordered and unweighted. Bootstrap support values were calculated with 1000 replications. Numbers on branches are bootstrap values. Branches with bootstrap values >50% are shown. Maximum likelihood (ML) bootstrap values are listed first on each branch, followed by MP bootstrap values. Red, blue and orange colors indicate the Epichloë species from China, Europe and North America, respectively. The partial figure is showed, for the full image please see S2 Fig.
Mentions: The topology of the tefA tree is consistent with that of the tubB tree. Isolates from western Chinese (asexual endophytes) and North American (sexual endophytes) Elymus species were grouped in different subclades: subclade III-tef, subclade IV-tef and subclade VI-tef, respectively (Fig 2 and S2 Fig). Subclade VI-tef contained 21 tefA sequences, including 15 asexual Epichloë endophytes from western Chinese Elymus species, three asexual E. sinica from Chinese Roegneria spp., two sexual E. liyangensis from Chinese Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis and one asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. E. sinica and E. liyangensis appear to be hybrids. The results of the tefA tree confirmed that the asexual Epichloë endophytes from western Chinese Elymus species are likely derived from the same ancestor with the asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum.

Bottom Line: In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin.Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia.In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou, 730020, P. R. China; College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730020, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Asexual Epichloë species are likely derived directly from sexual Epichloë species that then lost their capacity for sexual reproduction or lost sexual reproduction because of interspecific hybridization between distinct lineages of sexual Epichloë and/or asexual Epichloë species. In this study we isolated asexual Epichloë endophytes from Elymus species in western China and sequenced intron-rich regions in the genes encoding β-tubulin (tubB) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA). Our results showed that there are no gene copies of tubB and tefA in any of the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences in this study formed a single clade with asexual Epichloë bromicola from Hordeum brevisubulatum, which implies asexual Epichloë endophytes that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species likely share a common ancestor with asexual E. bromicola from European H. brevisubulatum. In addition, our results revealed that asexual E. bromicola isolates that are symbionts in a western Chinese Elymus species and sexual Epichloë species that are symbionts in a North American Elymus species have a different origin. Further analysis found that Epichloë species likely originated in Eurasia. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that migratory birds or humans might have aided the dispersal of these fungal endophytes to other continents.

No MeSH data available.