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A de novo floral transcriptome reveals clues into Phalaenopsis orchid flower development.

Huang JZ, Lin CP, Cheng TC, Chang BC, Cheng SY, Chen YW, Lee CY, Chin SW, Chen FC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: PhAGL6a, PhAGL6b and PhMADS4 were strongly expressed in the labellum and significantly upregulated in lip-like petals and lip-like sepals of peloric-mutant flowers.In addition, PhAGL6b was significantly downregulated in the labellum of the big lip mutant, with no change in expression of PhAGL6a.Our study provides new insights into how the orchid labellum differs and why the petal or sepal converts to a labellum in Phalaenopsis floral mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Industry, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Phalaenopsis has a zygomorphic floral structure, including three outer tepals, two lateral inner tepals and a highly modified inner median tepal called labellum or lip; however, the regulation of its organ development remains unelucidated. We generated RNA-seq reads with the Illumina platform for floral organs of the Phalaenopsis wild-type and peloric mutant with a lip-like petal. A total of 43,552 contigs were obtained after de novo assembly. We used differentially expressed gene profiling to compare the transcriptional changes in floral organs for both the wild-type and peloric mutant. Pair-wise comparison of sepals, petals and labellum between peloric mutant and its wild-type revealed 1,838, 758 and 1,147 contigs, respectively, with significant differential expression. PhAGL6a (CUFF.17763), PhAGL6b (CUFF.17763.1), PhMADS1 (CUFF.36625.1), PhMADS4 (CUFF.25909) and PhMADS5 (CUFF.39479.1) were significantly upregulated in the lip-like petal of the peloric mutant. We used real-time PCR analysis of lip-like petals, lip-like sepals and the big lip of peloric mutants to confirm the five genes' expression patterns. PhAGL6a, PhAGL6b and PhMADS4 were strongly expressed in the labellum and significantly upregulated in lip-like petals and lip-like sepals of peloric-mutant flowers. In addition, PhAGL6b was significantly downregulated in the labellum of the big lip mutant, with no change in expression of PhAGL6a. We provide a comprehensive transcript profile and functional analysis of Phalaenopsis floral organs. PhAGL6a PhAGL6b, and PhMADS4 might play crucial roles in the development of the labellum in Phalaenopsis. Our study provides new insights into how the orchid labellum differs and why the petal or sepal converts to a labellum in Phalaenopsis floral mutants.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in gene expression profiles between wild-type and peloric-mutant floral organs.The number of up- and downregulated genes in peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS), peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP), and peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL). Six libraries were summarized.
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pone.0123474.g004: Changes in gene expression profiles between wild-type and peloric-mutant floral organs.The number of up- and downregulated genes in peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS), peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP), and peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL). Six libraries were summarized.

Mentions: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the wild-type and peloric-mutant flower tissues (sepal, petal and labellum) (Fig 1A and 1B), we determined relative expression levels from our RNA-seq data (43,552 contigs) using DEseq [46]. We found 1,838 distinct contig sequences between the peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS) libraries: 820 were upregulated and 1,018 downregulated in the peloric-mutant sepal (Fig 4). We found 758 distinct contig sequences between the peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP) libraries: 363 were upregulated and 395 downregulated in the peloric-mutant petal. We found 1,147 distinct contig sequences between the peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL) libraries: 854 were upregulated and 293 downregulated in the peloric-mutant labellum (Fig 4). The expression levels and annotation of these differentially expressed contig sequences are in S7 Table.


A de novo floral transcriptome reveals clues into Phalaenopsis orchid flower development.

Huang JZ, Lin CP, Cheng TC, Chang BC, Cheng SY, Chen YW, Lee CY, Chin SW, Chen FC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Changes in gene expression profiles between wild-type and peloric-mutant floral organs.The number of up- and downregulated genes in peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS), peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP), and peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL). Six libraries were summarized.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430480&req=5

pone.0123474.g004: Changes in gene expression profiles between wild-type and peloric-mutant floral organs.The number of up- and downregulated genes in peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS), peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP), and peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL). Six libraries were summarized.
Mentions: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the wild-type and peloric-mutant flower tissues (sepal, petal and labellum) (Fig 1A and 1B), we determined relative expression levels from our RNA-seq data (43,552 contigs) using DEseq [46]. We found 1,838 distinct contig sequences between the peloric sepal (PS) and wild-type sepal (NS) libraries: 820 were upregulated and 1,018 downregulated in the peloric-mutant sepal (Fig 4). We found 758 distinct contig sequences between the peloric petal (PP) and wild-type petal (NP) libraries: 363 were upregulated and 395 downregulated in the peloric-mutant petal. We found 1,147 distinct contig sequences between the peloric labellum (PL) and wild-type labellum (NL) libraries: 854 were upregulated and 293 downregulated in the peloric-mutant labellum (Fig 4). The expression levels and annotation of these differentially expressed contig sequences are in S7 Table.

Bottom Line: PhAGL6a, PhAGL6b and PhMADS4 were strongly expressed in the labellum and significantly upregulated in lip-like petals and lip-like sepals of peloric-mutant flowers.In addition, PhAGL6b was significantly downregulated in the labellum of the big lip mutant, with no change in expression of PhAGL6a.Our study provides new insights into how the orchid labellum differs and why the petal or sepal converts to a labellum in Phalaenopsis floral mutants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Industry, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Phalaenopsis has a zygomorphic floral structure, including three outer tepals, two lateral inner tepals and a highly modified inner median tepal called labellum or lip; however, the regulation of its organ development remains unelucidated. We generated RNA-seq reads with the Illumina platform for floral organs of the Phalaenopsis wild-type and peloric mutant with a lip-like petal. A total of 43,552 contigs were obtained after de novo assembly. We used differentially expressed gene profiling to compare the transcriptional changes in floral organs for both the wild-type and peloric mutant. Pair-wise comparison of sepals, petals and labellum between peloric mutant and its wild-type revealed 1,838, 758 and 1,147 contigs, respectively, with significant differential expression. PhAGL6a (CUFF.17763), PhAGL6b (CUFF.17763.1), PhMADS1 (CUFF.36625.1), PhMADS4 (CUFF.25909) and PhMADS5 (CUFF.39479.1) were significantly upregulated in the lip-like petal of the peloric mutant. We used real-time PCR analysis of lip-like petals, lip-like sepals and the big lip of peloric mutants to confirm the five genes' expression patterns. PhAGL6a, PhAGL6b and PhMADS4 were strongly expressed in the labellum and significantly upregulated in lip-like petals and lip-like sepals of peloric-mutant flowers. In addition, PhAGL6b was significantly downregulated in the labellum of the big lip mutant, with no change in expression of PhAGL6a. We provide a comprehensive transcript profile and functional analysis of Phalaenopsis floral organs. PhAGL6a PhAGL6b, and PhMADS4 might play crucial roles in the development of the labellum in Phalaenopsis. Our study provides new insights into how the orchid labellum differs and why the petal or sepal converts to a labellum in Phalaenopsis floral mutants.

No MeSH data available.