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Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

Elliott DR, Caporn SJ, Nwaishi F, Nilsson RH, Sen R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota.Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas.Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correspondence analysis of bacterial and fungal communities, constrained by vegetation zone.Analysis is based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUS and 273 fungal OTUs across six zone classifications. Markers indicate individual samples (three per zone type), and dispersion ellipses show the 99% standard deviation confidence interval for each zone. Environmental variables with significance p < 0.05, are shown as biplotted vectors (based on permutation tests; n = 1000). Unconstrained ordinations and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.
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pone.0124726.g006: Correspondence analysis of bacterial and fungal communities, constrained by vegetation zone.Analysis is based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUS and 273 fungal OTUs across six zone classifications. Markers indicate individual samples (three per zone type), and dispersion ellipses show the 99% standard deviation confidence interval for each zone. Environmental variables with significance p < 0.05, are shown as biplotted vectors (based on permutation tests; n = 1000). Unconstrained ordinations and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.

Mentions: We used constrained correspondence analysis (CCA) to compare microbial community structure at the OTU level (97% similarity) in each zone, based upon the Bray-Curtis distance measure. This analysis was based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUs and 273 fungal OTUs (rare OTUs < 0.01% were not included). For both bacteria and fungi the belowground microbial community structures are separated on the first two axes of the correspondence analysis (Fig 6). Certain zones form discrete microbial community groupings (e.g. gully for both bacteria and fungi), and some zones cluster together (e.g. the bare peat and restored grass zones for both bacteria and fungi). Unconstrained correspondence analyses and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.


Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

Elliott DR, Caporn SJ, Nwaishi F, Nilsson RH, Sen R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Correspondence analysis of bacterial and fungal communities, constrained by vegetation zone.Analysis is based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUS and 273 fungal OTUs across six zone classifications. Markers indicate individual samples (three per zone type), and dispersion ellipses show the 99% standard deviation confidence interval for each zone. Environmental variables with significance p < 0.05, are shown as biplotted vectors (based on permutation tests; n = 1000). Unconstrained ordinations and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430338&req=5

pone.0124726.g006: Correspondence analysis of bacterial and fungal communities, constrained by vegetation zone.Analysis is based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUS and 273 fungal OTUs across six zone classifications. Markers indicate individual samples (three per zone type), and dispersion ellipses show the 99% standard deviation confidence interval for each zone. Environmental variables with significance p < 0.05, are shown as biplotted vectors (based on permutation tests; n = 1000). Unconstrained ordinations and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.
Mentions: We used constrained correspondence analysis (CCA) to compare microbial community structure at the OTU level (97% similarity) in each zone, based upon the Bray-Curtis distance measure. This analysis was based on relative abundance of 354 bacterial OTUs and 273 fungal OTUs (rare OTUs < 0.01% were not included). For both bacteria and fungi the belowground microbial community structures are separated on the first two axes of the correspondence analysis (Fig 6). Certain zones form discrete microbial community groupings (e.g. gully for both bacteria and fungi), and some zones cluster together (e.g. the bare peat and restored grass zones for both bacteria and fungi). Unconstrained correspondence analyses and scree plots are provided in S1 Fig and S2 Fig.

Bottom Line: Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota.Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas.Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus