Limits...
Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

Elliott DR, Caporn SJ, Nwaishi F, Nilsson RH, Sen R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota.Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas.Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative abundance of bacterial and fungal phyla (within each kingdom) in the six zones.The mean of 3 samples for each zone is shown and full results are given in S2 Table. Taxonomic affiliations of all OTUs are provided in S1 Protocol, and descriptions of the zones are given in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430338&req=5

pone.0124726.g005: Relative abundance of bacterial and fungal phyla (within each kingdom) in the six zones.The mean of 3 samples for each zone is shown and full results are given in S2 Table. Taxonomic affiliations of all OTUs are provided in S1 Protocol, and descriptions of the zones are given in Table 1.

Mentions: For each microbial kingdom, approximately 30,000 quality controlled sequences were obtained (see S1 Protocol for full details). These were clustered into 300 fungal OTUs and 441 bacterial OTUs at the 97% similarity threshold, most of which were in the tail of the rank-abundance plots (Fig 4). Fungal sequences were assigned to five phyla which were dominated by Ascomycota (65%) and Basidiomycota (29%) (Fig 5 and S2 Table). Bacterial sequences belonged to 21 phyla of which the most common were Proteobacteria (50%), Acidobacteria (31%), and Actinobacteria (9%) (Fig 5). Further taxonomic information for each OTU is provided in S1 Protocol.


Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation.

Elliott DR, Caporn SJ, Nwaishi F, Nilsson RH, Sen R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relative abundance of bacterial and fungal phyla (within each kingdom) in the six zones.The mean of 3 samples for each zone is shown and full results are given in S2 Table. Taxonomic affiliations of all OTUs are provided in S1 Protocol, and descriptions of the zones are given in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430338&req=5

pone.0124726.g005: Relative abundance of bacterial and fungal phyla (within each kingdom) in the six zones.The mean of 3 samples for each zone is shown and full results are given in S2 Table. Taxonomic affiliations of all OTUs are provided in S1 Protocol, and descriptions of the zones are given in Table 1.
Mentions: For each microbial kingdom, approximately 30,000 quality controlled sequences were obtained (see S1 Protocol for full details). These were clustered into 300 fungal OTUs and 441 bacterial OTUs at the 97% similarity threshold, most of which were in the tail of the rank-abundance plots (Fig 4). Fungal sequences were assigned to five phyla which were dominated by Ascomycota (65%) and Basidiomycota (29%) (Fig 5 and S2 Table). Bacterial sequences belonged to 21 phyla of which the most common were Proteobacteria (50%), Acidobacteria (31%), and Actinobacteria (9%) (Fig 5). Further taxonomic information for each OTU is provided in S1 Protocol.

Bottom Line: Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota.Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas.Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial decomposition by microorganisms that are limited by cold, acidic, and anaerobic conditions. In the Southern Pennines, land-use change, drainage, and over 200 years of anthropogenic N and heavy metal deposition have contributed to severe peatland degradation manifested as a loss of vegetation leaving bare peat susceptible to erosion and deep gullying. A restoration programme designed to regain peat hydrology, stability and functionality has involved re-vegetation through nurse grass, dwarf shrub and Sphagnum re-introduction. Our aim was to characterise bacterial and fungal communities, via high-throughput rRNA gene sequencing, in the surface acrotelm/mesotelm of degraded bare peat, long-term stable vegetated peat, and natural and managed restorations. Compared to long-term vegetated areas the bare peat microbiome had significantly higher levels of oligotrophic marker phyla (Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, TM6) and lower Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, together with much higher ligninolytic Basidiomycota. Fewer distinct microbial sequences and significantly fewer cultivable microbes were detected in bare peat compared to other areas. Microbial community structure was linked to restoration activity and correlated with soil edaphic variables (e.g. moisture and heavy metals). Although rapid community changes were evident following restoration activity, restored bare peat did not approach a similar microbial community structure to non-eroded areas even after 25 years, which may be related to the stabilisation of historic deposited heavy metals pollution in long-term stable areas. These primary findings are discussed in relation to bare peat oligotrophy, re-vegetation recalcitrance, rhizosphere-microbe-soil interactions, C, N and P cycling, trajectory of restoration, and ecosystem service implications for peatland restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus