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Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

Packer RM, Hendricks A, Burn CC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white.A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk.Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5) were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.
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pone.0123827.g001: A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.

Mentions: Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer following the use of fluorescein dye while at the SARH (whether referred for this disorder or other unrelated disorders), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs’ histories (Fig 1). As this study involved dogs affected by a wide variety of disorders, dogs diagnosed with corneal ulcers included both those referred to a single ophthalmology specialist specifically for this condition, and dogs referred to the SARH for other conditions, diagnosed with an ulcer by their attending clinician on other clinical services. All owners were asked whether their dog had a history of eye problems in a generic owner questionnaire (S1 Table), which aided in the identification of dogs previously treated for corneal ulcers. If insufficient information regarding historical ulcers was provided in the dog’s referral history, or owners were unsure of prior ophthalmic disorders in their dog, then the first opinion practice was contacted to provide this information and confirm a history of this condition.


Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

Packer RM, Hendricks A, Burn CC - PLoS ONE (2015)

A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430292&req=5

pone.0123827.g001: A 2 year old male Pug diagnosed and undergoing treatment for a corneal ulcer in his left eye.
Mentions: Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer following the use of fluorescein dye while at the SARH (whether referred for this disorder or other unrelated disorders), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs’ histories (Fig 1). As this study involved dogs affected by a wide variety of disorders, dogs diagnosed with corneal ulcers included both those referred to a single ophthalmology specialist specifically for this condition, and dogs referred to the SARH for other conditions, diagnosed with an ulcer by their attending clinician on other clinical services. All owners were asked whether their dog had a history of eye problems in a generic owner questionnaire (S1 Table), which aided in the identification of dogs previously treated for corneal ulcers. If insufficient information regarding historical ulcers was provided in the dog’s referral history, or owners were unsure of prior ophthalmic disorders in their dog, then the first opinion practice was contacted to provide this information and confirm a history of this condition.

Bottom Line: This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white.A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk.Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5) were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus