Limits...
Aberrant function of learning and cognitive control networks underlie inefficient cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa: a cross-sectional fMRI study.

Lao-Kaim NP, Fonville L, Giampietro VP, Williams SC, Simmons A, Tchanturia K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity.Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls.Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa.

Method: Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning.

Results: Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls.

Conclusions: People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how perseverative tendencies could be a substrate of multiple high-order processes that may contribute to the maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

fMRI results of learning comparisons.(A): Coronal, sagittal and axial views of regions showing significant group (Anorexia Nervosa, Healthy Control) by event (First Correct [F-Corr], Second Correct [S-Corr]) interactions of BOLD response (SSQ value) in the right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 14, -56, 20, cluster size = 26, p = 0.0071) and right precuneus (BA4, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 29, -33, 42, cluster size = 33, p = 0.0026). (B): Significant difference in activity between Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Control groups during Second Correct trials (S-Corr) in the right cerebellum (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 7, -30, -24, cluster size = 36, p = 0.0031), left caudate body (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = -22, -26, 26, cluster size = 30, p = 0.003), right precuneus (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 22, -30, 42, cluster size = 21, p = 0.0017) and right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 11, -56, 20, cluster size = 37, p = 0.0019). Functional data were thresholded to yield less than 1 false positive cluster and overlaid onto a high resolution single subject T1 structural image in Talairach space.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430209&req=5

pone.0124027.g003: fMRI results of learning comparisons.(A): Coronal, sagittal and axial views of regions showing significant group (Anorexia Nervosa, Healthy Control) by event (First Correct [F-Corr], Second Correct [S-Corr]) interactions of BOLD response (SSQ value) in the right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 14, -56, 20, cluster size = 26, p = 0.0071) and right precuneus (BA4, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 29, -33, 42, cluster size = 33, p = 0.0026). (B): Significant difference in activity between Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Control groups during Second Correct trials (S-Corr) in the right cerebellum (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 7, -30, -24, cluster size = 36, p = 0.0031), left caudate body (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = -22, -26, 26, cluster size = 30, p = 0.003), right precuneus (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 22, -30, 42, cluster size = 21, p = 0.0017) and right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 11, -56, 20, cluster size = 37, p = 0.0019). Functional data were thresholded to yield less than 1 false positive cluster and overlaid onto a high resolution single subject T1 structural image in Talairach space.

Mentions: To assess BOLD response during learning, AN and HC groups were compared on F-Corr and S-Corr trials. As previously stated, there were no differences when comparing groups on F-Corr trials. For S-Corr however, the HC group exhibited significantly greater activation in the right precuneus, left caudate body and right cerebellum as compared to AN. The AN group exhibited significantly greater activation in the right posterior cingulate cortex as compared to HC (Fig 3B).


Aberrant function of learning and cognitive control networks underlie inefficient cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa: a cross-sectional fMRI study.

Lao-Kaim NP, Fonville L, Giampietro VP, Williams SC, Simmons A, Tchanturia K - PLoS ONE (2015)

fMRI results of learning comparisons.(A): Coronal, sagittal and axial views of regions showing significant group (Anorexia Nervosa, Healthy Control) by event (First Correct [F-Corr], Second Correct [S-Corr]) interactions of BOLD response (SSQ value) in the right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 14, -56, 20, cluster size = 26, p = 0.0071) and right precuneus (BA4, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 29, -33, 42, cluster size = 33, p = 0.0026). (B): Significant difference in activity between Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Control groups during Second Correct trials (S-Corr) in the right cerebellum (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 7, -30, -24, cluster size = 36, p = 0.0031), left caudate body (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = -22, -26, 26, cluster size = 30, p = 0.003), right precuneus (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 22, -30, 42, cluster size = 21, p = 0.0017) and right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 11, -56, 20, cluster size = 37, p = 0.0019). Functional data were thresholded to yield less than 1 false positive cluster and overlaid onto a high resolution single subject T1 structural image in Talairach space.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430209&req=5

pone.0124027.g003: fMRI results of learning comparisons.(A): Coronal, sagittal and axial views of regions showing significant group (Anorexia Nervosa, Healthy Control) by event (First Correct [F-Corr], Second Correct [S-Corr]) interactions of BOLD response (SSQ value) in the right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 14, -56, 20, cluster size = 26, p = 0.0071) and right precuneus (BA4, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 29, -33, 42, cluster size = 33, p = 0.0026). (B): Significant difference in activity between Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Control groups during Second Correct trials (S-Corr) in the right cerebellum (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 7, -30, -24, cluster size = 36, p = 0.0031), left caudate body (Peak activation Talairach coordinates = -22, -26, 26, cluster size = 30, p = 0.003), right precuneus (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 22, -30, 42, cluster size = 21, p = 0.0017) and right posterior cingulate cortex (BA31, Peak activation Talairach coordinates = 11, -56, 20, cluster size = 37, p = 0.0019). Functional data were thresholded to yield less than 1 false positive cluster and overlaid onto a high resolution single subject T1 structural image in Talairach space.
Mentions: To assess BOLD response during learning, AN and HC groups were compared on F-Corr and S-Corr trials. As previously stated, there were no differences when comparing groups on F-Corr trials. For S-Corr however, the HC group exhibited significantly greater activation in the right precuneus, left caudate body and right cerebellum as compared to AN. The AN group exhibited significantly greater activation in the right posterior cingulate cortex as compared to HC (Fig 3B).

Bottom Line: This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity.Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls.Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: People with Anorexia Nervosa exhibit difficulties flexibly adjusting behaviour in response to environmental changes. This has previously been attributed to problematic behavioural shifting, characterised by a decrease in fronto-striatal activity. Additionally, alterations of instrumental learning, which relies on fronto-striatal networks, may contribute to the observation of inflexible behaviour. The authors sought to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility and learning in Anorexia Nervosa.

Method: Thirty-two adult females with Anorexia Nervosa and thirty-two age-matched female control participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Event-related analysis permitted the comparison of cognitive shift trials against those requiring maintenance of rule-sets and allowed assessment of trials representing learning.

Results: Although both groups performed similarly, we found significant interactions in the left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior parietal lobule whereby blood-oxygenated-level dependent response was higher in Anorexia Nervosa patients during shifting but lower when maintaining rule-sets, as compared to healthy controls. During learning, posterior cingulate cortex activity in healthy controls decreased whilst increasing in the Anorexia Nervosa group, whereas the right precuneus exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, learning was associated with lower blood-oxygenated-level dependent response in the caudate body, as compared to healthy controls.

Conclusions: People with Anorexia Nervosa display widespread changes in executive function. Whilst cognitive flexibility appears to be associated with aberrant functioning of the fronto-parietal control network that mediates between internally and externally directed cognition, fronto-striatal alterations, particularly within the caudate body, were associated with instrumental learning. Together, this shows how perseverative tendencies could be a substrate of multiple high-order processes that may contribute to the maintenance of Anorexia Nervosa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus