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Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO2 and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis.

Bermúdez R, Feng Y, Roleda MY, Tatters AO, Hutchins DA, Larsen T, Boyd PW, Hurd CL, Riebesell U, Winder M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers.Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels.Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GEOMAR / Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Facultad de Ingeniería Marítima, Ciencias Biológicas, Oceánicas y Recursos Naturales, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

ABSTRACT
The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO₂ emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4°C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO₂ and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19°C) and 3 partial pressures of CO₂ (180, 380, 750 μatm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of ~3% and ~6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO₂ of 750 μatm (high) compared to the 380 μatm (intermediate) CO₂ treatments at 14°C. Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO₂ of 180 μatm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO₂ levels at 14°C, but there were no differences in EA at 19°C for any CO₂ treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only ~20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Principal component analysis [PCA] of the fatty acids [FA] and amino acids [AA] in Cylindrotheca fusiformis.The algae was cultured under three different CO2 conditions and two temperatures (19°C in black and 14°C in white) for >250 generations. Only the FA and AA with a concentration above 1% were included in the analysis. a) The abundance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] was higher at 19°C (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), however the influence of the former was lower. b) A higher abundance of essential amino acids [EA] was more common at high temperature (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), although the CO2 influence was comparatively smaller.
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pone.0123945.g002: Principal component analysis [PCA] of the fatty acids [FA] and amino acids [AA] in Cylindrotheca fusiformis.The algae was cultured under three different CO2 conditions and two temperatures (19°C in black and 14°C in white) for >250 generations. Only the FA and AA with a concentration above 1% were included in the analysis. a) The abundance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] was higher at 19°C (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), however the influence of the former was lower. b) A higher abundance of essential amino acids [EA] was more common at high temperature (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), although the CO2 influence was comparatively smaller.

Mentions: The PCA of the individual algal FA compounds showed that PUFA had higher similarity in terms of relative abundance at high temperatures (PC1, 44.4%) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2, 24.7%), however the influence of the former was lower (Fig 2A). The axis loads of the PCA analysis showed that the PUFA had a strong influence on the explained variance of both axes (S3A Fig).


Long-Term Conditioning to Elevated pCO2 and Warming Influences the Fatty and Amino Acid Composition of the Diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis.

Bermúdez R, Feng Y, Roleda MY, Tatters AO, Hutchins DA, Larsen T, Boyd PW, Hurd CL, Riebesell U, Winder M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal component analysis [PCA] of the fatty acids [FA] and amino acids [AA] in Cylindrotheca fusiformis.The algae was cultured under three different CO2 conditions and two temperatures (19°C in black and 14°C in white) for >250 generations. Only the FA and AA with a concentration above 1% were included in the analysis. a) The abundance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] was higher at 19°C (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), however the influence of the former was lower. b) A higher abundance of essential amino acids [EA] was more common at high temperature (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), although the CO2 influence was comparatively smaller.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430207&req=5

pone.0123945.g002: Principal component analysis [PCA] of the fatty acids [FA] and amino acids [AA] in Cylindrotheca fusiformis.The algae was cultured under three different CO2 conditions and two temperatures (19°C in black and 14°C in white) for >250 generations. Only the FA and AA with a concentration above 1% were included in the analysis. a) The abundance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA] was higher at 19°C (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), however the influence of the former was lower. b) A higher abundance of essential amino acids [EA] was more common at high temperature (PC1) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2), although the CO2 influence was comparatively smaller.
Mentions: The PCA of the individual algal FA compounds showed that PUFA had higher similarity in terms of relative abundance at high temperatures (PC1, 44.4%) and intermediate CO2 level (PC2, 24.7%), however the influence of the former was lower (Fig 2A). The axis loads of the PCA analysis showed that the PUFA had a strong influence on the explained variance of both axes (S3A Fig).

Bottom Line: These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers.Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels.Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GEOMAR / Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Facultad de Ingeniería Marítima, Ciencias Biológicas, Oceánicas y Recursos Naturales, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador.

ABSTRACT
The unabated rise in anthropogenic CO₂ emissions is predicted to strongly influence the ocean's environment, increasing the mean sea-surface temperature by 4°C and causing a pH decline of 0.3 units by the year 2100. These changes are likely to affect the nutritional value of marine food sources since temperature and CO₂ can influence the fatty (FA) and amino acid (AA) composition of marine primary producers. Here, essential amino (EA) and polyunsaturated fatty (PUFA) acids are of particular importance due to their nutritional value to higher trophic levels. In order to determine the interactive effects of CO₂ and temperature on the nutritional quality of a primary producer, we analyzed the relative PUFA and EA composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis cultured under a factorial matrix of 2 temperatures (14 and 19°C) and 3 partial pressures of CO₂ (180, 380, 750 μatm) for >250 generations. Our results show a decay of ~3% and ~6% in PUFA and EA content in algae kept at a pCO₂ of 750 μatm (high) compared to the 380 μatm (intermediate) CO₂ treatments at 14°C. Cultures kept at 19°C displayed a ~3% lower PUFA content under high compared to intermediate pCO₂, while EA did not show differences between treatments. Algae grown at a pCO₂ of 180 μatm (low) had a lower PUFA and AA content in relation to those at intermediate and high CO₂ levels at 14°C, but there were no differences in EA at 19°C for any CO₂ treatment. This study is the first to report adverse effects of warming and acidification on the EA of a primary producer, and corroborates previous observations of negative effects of these stressors on PUFA. Considering that only ~20% of essential biomolecules such as PUFA (and possibly EA) are incorporated into new biomass at the next trophic level, the potential impacts of adverse effects of ocean warming and acidification at the base of the food web may be amplified towards higher trophic levels, which rely on them as source of essential biomolecules.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus