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Alcelaphine Herpesvirus-1 (Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus) in Wildebeest Placenta: Genetic Variation of ORF50 and A9.5 Alleles.

Lankester F, Lugelo A, Mnyambwa N, Ndabigaye A, Keyyu J, Kazwala R, Grant DM, Relf V, Haig DM, Cleaveland S, Russell GC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue.The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain.This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom; Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99164, United States of America; School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania.

ABSTRACT
Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1), a causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, was detected in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) placenta tissue for the first time. Although viral load was low, the finding of viral DNA in over 50% of 94 samples tested lends support to the possibility that placental tissue could play a role in disease transmission and that wildebeest calves are infected in utero. Two viral loci were sequenced to examine variation among virus samples obtained from wildebeest and cattle: the ORF50 gene, encoding the lytic cycle transactivator protein, and the A9.5 gene, encoding a novel polymorphic viral glycoprotein. ORF50 was well conserved with six newly discovered alleles differing at only one or two base positions. In contrast, while only three new A9.5 alleles were discovered, these differed by up to 13% at the nucleotide level and up to 20% at the amino acid level. Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue. The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain. This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analysis of A9.5 predicted cDNA sequences.Nucleotide sequences of the six variants A9.5*0101 to Ov9.5*0301 were aligned using MAFFT and phylogenetic analysis was done in MEGA version 6.0 using the Maximum Likelihood method, based on the Kimura 2-parameter model [38]. The tree with the highest log likelihood is shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 453 positions in the final dataset.
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pone.0124121.g002: Phylogenetic analysis of A9.5 predicted cDNA sequences.Nucleotide sequences of the six variants A9.5*0101 to Ov9.5*0301 were aligned using MAFFT and phylogenetic analysis was done in MEGA version 6.0 using the Maximum Likelihood method, based on the Kimura 2-parameter model [38]. The tree with the highest log likelihood is shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 453 positions in the final dataset.

Mentions: A9.5 could be amplified from 26 of 57 AlHV-1 positive wildebeest samples (three FTA card preserved buffy coat samples and 23 placenta) and from six of 59 AlHV-1 positive vaccine trial cattle samples (Tables 1, 2 and S1 Data). Four alleles of A9.5 were found among these samples, sharing at least 87% nucleotide sequence identity (S2 Fig). The majority of samples carried the A9.5*0101 allele, whilst the remaining samples carried three alleles which have not been previously described. These novel alleles were named, in accordance with the previously published nomenclature, A9.5*0202, A9.5*0203 and A9.5*0301. The novel alleles A9.5*0202 and A9.5*0203 encoded identical proteins to the previously published A9.5*0201 allele [24], differing only at two positions in the last intron. Novel allele A9.5*0301 encoded a protein sequence with 80% identity with the previously published alleles [24]. A9.5*0203 and *0301 were found only in wildebeest from the Ngorongoro Crater population, whilst A9.5 *0202 was only found in cattle living near Tarangire National Park (Table 2). The number of samples with these minority alleles was too low to allow statistical analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the A9.5 genomic and putative spliced cDNA sequences yielded trees with the same topology (Fig 2).


Alcelaphine Herpesvirus-1 (Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus) in Wildebeest Placenta: Genetic Variation of ORF50 and A9.5 Alleles.

Lankester F, Lugelo A, Mnyambwa N, Ndabigaye A, Keyyu J, Kazwala R, Grant DM, Relf V, Haig DM, Cleaveland S, Russell GC - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogenetic analysis of A9.5 predicted cDNA sequences.Nucleotide sequences of the six variants A9.5*0101 to Ov9.5*0301 were aligned using MAFFT and phylogenetic analysis was done in MEGA version 6.0 using the Maximum Likelihood method, based on the Kimura 2-parameter model [38]. The tree with the highest log likelihood is shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 453 positions in the final dataset.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430166&req=5

pone.0124121.g002: Phylogenetic analysis of A9.5 predicted cDNA sequences.Nucleotide sequences of the six variants A9.5*0101 to Ov9.5*0301 were aligned using MAFFT and phylogenetic analysis was done in MEGA version 6.0 using the Maximum Likelihood method, based on the Kimura 2-parameter model [38]. The tree with the highest log likelihood is shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 453 positions in the final dataset.
Mentions: A9.5 could be amplified from 26 of 57 AlHV-1 positive wildebeest samples (three FTA card preserved buffy coat samples and 23 placenta) and from six of 59 AlHV-1 positive vaccine trial cattle samples (Tables 1, 2 and S1 Data). Four alleles of A9.5 were found among these samples, sharing at least 87% nucleotide sequence identity (S2 Fig). The majority of samples carried the A9.5*0101 allele, whilst the remaining samples carried three alleles which have not been previously described. These novel alleles were named, in accordance with the previously published nomenclature, A9.5*0202, A9.5*0203 and A9.5*0301. The novel alleles A9.5*0202 and A9.5*0203 encoded identical proteins to the previously published A9.5*0201 allele [24], differing only at two positions in the last intron. Novel allele A9.5*0301 encoded a protein sequence with 80% identity with the previously published alleles [24]. A9.5*0203 and *0301 were found only in wildebeest from the Ngorongoro Crater population, whilst A9.5 *0202 was only found in cattle living near Tarangire National Park (Table 2). The number of samples with these minority alleles was too low to allow statistical analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the A9.5 genomic and putative spliced cDNA sequences yielded trees with the same topology (Fig 2).

Bottom Line: Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue.The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain.This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom; Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, 99164, United States of America; School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania.

ABSTRACT
Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1), a causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, was detected in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) placenta tissue for the first time. Although viral load was low, the finding of viral DNA in over 50% of 94 samples tested lends support to the possibility that placental tissue could play a role in disease transmission and that wildebeest calves are infected in utero. Two viral loci were sequenced to examine variation among virus samples obtained from wildebeest and cattle: the ORF50 gene, encoding the lytic cycle transactivator protein, and the A9.5 gene, encoding a novel polymorphic viral glycoprotein. ORF50 was well conserved with six newly discovered alleles differing at only one or two base positions. In contrast, while only three new A9.5 alleles were discovered, these differed by up to 13% at the nucleotide level and up to 20% at the amino acid level. Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue. The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain. This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus