Genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I and Group II.
Bottom Line: Recent developments in whole genome sequencing have made a substantial contribution to understanding the genomes, neurotoxins and biology of Clostridium botulinum Group I (proteolytic C. botulinum) and C. botulinum Group II (non-proteolytic C. botulinum).The properties of the different types of neurotoxin formed, and different neurotoxin gene clusters found in C. botulinum Groups I and II are explored.Specific examples of botulinum neurotoxin genes are chosen for an in-depth discussion of neurotoxin gene evolution.
Affiliation: Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: DNA microarrays provide an alternative to whole genome sequencing for analysis of whole genomes; they are particularly useful for comparison of many closely related genomes, using a well-characterised, sequenced strain as a hybridisation reference. Fig. 3 displays the main set of results from two different studies, in which a DNA microarray was used to compare sequences representing all predicted genes of the sequenced C. botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502 with the unknown ones of several strains of the same Group (Fig. 3A), and similarly all predicted genes of the Eklund 17B genome were compared with unknown ones from other members of C. botulinum Group II (Fig. 3B). Strains tested using the C. botulinum Group I microarray included those forming type A, A(B), B, Bf and F neurotoxins, plus several examples of the closely related but non-toxigenic C. sporogenes. Strains tested using the C. botulinum Group II microarray included those forming type B, type E or type F neurotoxin [62,65].
Affiliation: Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK.