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Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Yin RV, Phung OJ - Nutr J (2015)

Bottom Line: Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C.Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137).Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Western University of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 309 E. Second St, Pomona, CA, 91766, USA. ryin@westernu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Chromium (Cr) is a trace element involved in glucose homeostasis. We aim to evaluate and quantify the effects of Cr supplementation on A1C and FPG in patients with T2DM.

Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (from database inception to 11/2014) with no language restrictions sought RCTs or cohort studies evaluating Cr supplementation in T2DM vs control and reporting either change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Meta-analysis was conducted on each subtype of Cr supplement separately, and was analyzed by random effects model to yield the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) statistic.

Results: A total of 14 RCTs (n=875 participants, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) were identified (Cr chloride: n=3 study, Cr picolinate: n=5 study, brewer's yeast: n=4 study and Cr yeast: n=3 study). Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C. Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137).

Conclusions: Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

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Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Six domains are evaluated, random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blind of outcomes assessment, incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. – , ? and + represents either a high, unknown or low risk of bias, respectively.
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Fig2: Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Six domains are evaluated, random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blind of outcomes assessment, incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. – , ? and + represents either a high, unknown or low risk of bias, respectively.

Mentions: Upon screening for inclusion and exclusion of studies, 14 nonduplicate RCTs (n = 875 patients, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) met inclusion criteria (Figure 1) [13–27]. No observational studies were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. Of the 14 unique studies identified, 11 reported results for A1C and 12 reported results for FPG. Patients in the intervention group received Cr supplement (dosing range 126 mcg-1,000 mcg daily) in the form of either: Cr chloride (n = 3) [17, 18, 20], Cr picolinate (n = 5) [16, 21, 23, 24, 28], Cr yeast (n = 3) [26, 27, 29], or brewer’s yeast (n = 4) [15, 18, 22, 25]. Cr was dosed one to three times daily (Table 1). Assessment for the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool is presented in Figure 2. The Cr levels for patients included in this meta-analysis were either not reported or within normal limits.Figure 1


Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Yin RV, Phung OJ - Nutr J (2015)

Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Six domains are evaluated, random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blind of outcomes assessment, incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. – , ? and + represents either a high, unknown or low risk of bias, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4430034&req=5

Fig2: Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Six domains are evaluated, random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blind of outcomes assessment, incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. – , ? and + represents either a high, unknown or low risk of bias, respectively.
Mentions: Upon screening for inclusion and exclusion of studies, 14 nonduplicate RCTs (n = 875 patients, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) met inclusion criteria (Figure 1) [13–27]. No observational studies were found to be eligible for inclusion in this study. Of the 14 unique studies identified, 11 reported results for A1C and 12 reported results for FPG. Patients in the intervention group received Cr supplement (dosing range 126 mcg-1,000 mcg daily) in the form of either: Cr chloride (n = 3) [17, 18, 20], Cr picolinate (n = 5) [16, 21, 23, 24, 28], Cr yeast (n = 3) [26, 27, 29], or brewer’s yeast (n = 4) [15, 18, 22, 25]. Cr was dosed one to three times daily (Table 1). Assessment for the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool is presented in Figure 2. The Cr levels for patients included in this meta-analysis were either not reported or within normal limits.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C.Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137).Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Western University of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 309 E. Second St, Pomona, CA, 91766, USA. ryin@westernu.edu.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Chromium (Cr) is a trace element involved in glucose homeostasis. We aim to evaluate and quantify the effects of Cr supplementation on A1C and FPG in patients with T2DM.

Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (from database inception to 11/2014) with no language restrictions sought RCTs or cohort studies evaluating Cr supplementation in T2DM vs control and reporting either change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Meta-analysis was conducted on each subtype of Cr supplement separately, and was analyzed by random effects model to yield the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) statistic.

Results: A total of 14 RCTs (n=875 participants, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) were identified (Cr chloride: n=3 study, Cr picolinate: n=5 study, brewer's yeast: n=4 study and Cr yeast: n=3 study). Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C. Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137).

Conclusions: Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

Show MeSH