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The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways.

Dalby AR, Iqbal M - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak.This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds.These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster , Westminster , UK.

ABSTRACT
The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bird migratory flyways and the December 2014 cases of H5N8 (Boere & Stroud, 2006).The Eastern Asian Australian flyway is in red. The East Atlantic flyway is in dark blue. An expandable version of this map is available from: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zcvUWKLLjKsE.kvYJ1NxAer8k—Map Data ©2015 Google, INEGI
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fig-3: Bird migratory flyways and the December 2014 cases of H5N8 (Boere & Stroud, 2006).The Eastern Asian Australian flyway is in red. The East Atlantic flyway is in dark blue. An expandable version of this map is available from: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zcvUWKLLjKsE.kvYJ1NxAer8k—Map Data ©2015 Google, INEGI

Mentions: The breeding grounds and migratory staging grounds for Baikal teal overlap with those for many other migratory species including common species such as mallards, pochards, widgeon (Anas penelope), common teal, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and tundra swans, as well as endangered species such as white-naped cranes (Miyabayashi & Mundkur, 1999). Mallard and teal have previously been identified as having a high prevalence (between 6 and 7%) for influenza A virus (Munster et al., 2007). The bird migrations flow from Siberia along the five different flyways that overlap in Central Siberia; they are the East Atlantic, East Asia Australian, East Africa West Asia, Central Asia and Black Sea Mediterranean flyways. So far, H5N8 infections in birds have only been detected in the East Atlantic and East Asian Australian flyways (Fig. 3). The absence from other flyways can be explained either through transmission by a limited number of bird migratory species, or because or the lack of surveillance in these geographical regions. Although there have been a few cases recently reported in North America, these are from the different lineage not related to the Korean outbreak.


The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways.

Dalby AR, Iqbal M - PeerJ (2015)

Bird migratory flyways and the December 2014 cases of H5N8 (Boere & Stroud, 2006).The Eastern Asian Australian flyway is in red. The East Atlantic flyway is in dark blue. An expandable version of this map is available from: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zcvUWKLLjKsE.kvYJ1NxAer8k—Map Data ©2015 Google, INEGI
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4419530&req=5

fig-3: Bird migratory flyways and the December 2014 cases of H5N8 (Boere & Stroud, 2006).The Eastern Asian Australian flyway is in red. The East Atlantic flyway is in dark blue. An expandable version of this map is available from: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=zcvUWKLLjKsE.kvYJ1NxAer8k—Map Data ©2015 Google, INEGI
Mentions: The breeding grounds and migratory staging grounds for Baikal teal overlap with those for many other migratory species including common species such as mallards, pochards, widgeon (Anas penelope), common teal, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and tundra swans, as well as endangered species such as white-naped cranes (Miyabayashi & Mundkur, 1999). Mallard and teal have previously been identified as having a high prevalence (between 6 and 7%) for influenza A virus (Munster et al., 2007). The bird migrations flow from Siberia along the five different flyways that overlap in Central Siberia; they are the East Atlantic, East Asia Australian, East Africa West Asia, Central Asia and Black Sea Mediterranean flyways. So far, H5N8 infections in birds have only been detected in the East Atlantic and East Asian Australian flyways (Fig. 3). The absence from other flyways can be explained either through transmission by a limited number of bird migratory species, or because or the lack of surveillance in these geographical regions. Although there have been a few cases recently reported in North America, these are from the different lineage not related to the Korean outbreak.

Bottom Line: By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak.This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds.These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster , Westminster , UK.

ABSTRACT
The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus