Quantitative analysis of tissue deformation dynamics reveals three characteristic growth modes and globally aligned anisotropic tissue deformation during chick limb development.
Bottom Line: We also found anisotropic tissue deformation along the proximal-distal axis.Morphogenetic simulation and experimental studies suggested that this directional tissue elongation, and not local growth, has the greatest impact on limb shaping.Our study marks a pivotal point for multi-scale system understanding in vertebrate development.
Affiliation: Laboratory for Developmental Morphogeometry, RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center, Kobe 650-0047, Japan RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, Japan email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: In characterizing the macroscopic deformation patterns of tissues that are composed of a large number of cells, it is useful to regard them as continuums, by neglecting or averaging out the variability in the shapes and sizes of individual cells. In the case of the chick limb bud, there are millions of cells, and thus the continuum approach is appropriate. When an organ is regarded as a continuum, its deformation is mathematically described as a map (Bonet and Wood, 2008), i.e. the relationship between the spatial coordinates of each unit of tissue or landmark (e.g. small populations of cells) before and after deformation (Fig. 1A; Materials and Methods). Such a positional relationship, of course, might to some extent be different between embryos. The map we refer to here is an average over multiple embryos; smaller variability in tissue deformation between embryos from the average map indicates that the morphogenetic process is more robust and deterministic.Fig. 1.
Affiliation: Laboratory for Developmental Morphogeometry, RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center, Kobe 650-0047, Japan RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe 650-0047, Japan email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.