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Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

Palanivell P, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM, Jalloh MB, Susilawati K - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)).However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization.Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

No MeSH data available.


Treatments (C1: soil alone, C2: soil + complete fertilization, CHS1: soil + complete fertilization + 20 g rice straw compost + 2 g sawdust ash, CHS2: soil + complete fertilization + 40 g rice straw compost + 4 g sawdust ash, and CHS3: soil + complete fertilization + 60 g rice straw compost + 6 g sawdust ash) effect on soil total carbon, total organic carbon, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3−, and total nitrogen content at 90 days after seeding. Different alphabets indicate significant difference between means using Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. The error bars are the ± standard error of quadruplicates.
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fig8: Treatments (C1: soil alone, C2: soil + complete fertilization, CHS1: soil + complete fertilization + 20 g rice straw compost + 2 g sawdust ash, CHS2: soil + complete fertilization + 40 g rice straw compost + 4 g sawdust ash, and CHS3: soil + complete fertilization + 60 g rice straw compost + 6 g sawdust ash) effect on soil total carbon, total organic carbon, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3−, and total nitrogen content at 90 days after seeding. Different alphabets indicate significant difference between means using Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. The error bars are the ± standard error of quadruplicates.

Mentions: CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3 increased soil organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total carbon (TC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with soil alone (C1) and normal fertilization (C2) (Figure 8). Higher OM, TOC, TC, and CEC of the crude humic substances applied soil (CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3) were because of the inherent contents of OM, TOC, TC, and higher CEC of rice straw compost (Table 2). The highest rate of crude humic substances (CHS3) showed the highest soil total N compared to other treatments and this was due to no N depletion in soil because the rice plants could not survive. Normal fertilization (C2) and crude humic substances treatments (CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3) showed similar effect on exchangeable NH4+ and available NO3−. The higher NH3 volatilization regardless of treatment resulted in lower contents of exchangeable NH4+ and available NO3− in soil (Figure 2).


Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

Palanivell P, Ahmed OH, Ab Majid NM, Jalloh MB, Susilawati K - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Treatments (C1: soil alone, C2: soil + complete fertilization, CHS1: soil + complete fertilization + 20 g rice straw compost + 2 g sawdust ash, CHS2: soil + complete fertilization + 40 g rice straw compost + 4 g sawdust ash, and CHS3: soil + complete fertilization + 60 g rice straw compost + 6 g sawdust ash) effect on soil total carbon, total organic carbon, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3−, and total nitrogen content at 90 days after seeding. Different alphabets indicate significant difference between means using Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. The error bars are the ± standard error of quadruplicates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4419218&req=5

fig8: Treatments (C1: soil alone, C2: soil + complete fertilization, CHS1: soil + complete fertilization + 20 g rice straw compost + 2 g sawdust ash, CHS2: soil + complete fertilization + 40 g rice straw compost + 4 g sawdust ash, and CHS3: soil + complete fertilization + 60 g rice straw compost + 6 g sawdust ash) effect on soil total carbon, total organic carbon, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3−, and total nitrogen content at 90 days after seeding. Different alphabets indicate significant difference between means using Tukey's test at P ≤ 0.05. The error bars are the ± standard error of quadruplicates.
Mentions: CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3 increased soil organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total carbon (TC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with soil alone (C1) and normal fertilization (C2) (Figure 8). Higher OM, TOC, TC, and CEC of the crude humic substances applied soil (CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3) were because of the inherent contents of OM, TOC, TC, and higher CEC of rice straw compost (Table 2). The highest rate of crude humic substances (CHS3) showed the highest soil total N compared to other treatments and this was due to no N depletion in soil because the rice plants could not survive. Normal fertilization (C2) and crude humic substances treatments (CHS1, CHS2, and CHS3) showed similar effect on exchangeable NH4+ and available NO3−. The higher NH3 volatilization regardless of treatment resulted in lower contents of exchangeable NH4+ and available NO3− in soil (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)).However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization.Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, 97008 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

No MeSH data available.