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Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

Lamp O, Derno M, Otten W, Mielenz M, Nürnberg G, Kuhla B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers.Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded.Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Catecholamines.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) plasma noradrenaline and (B) adrenaline. In experimental period 1 (P1) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red lines) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue lines) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap, dashed lines) and again post-partum (pp, solid lines). All data given as mean ± SEM; for P1 the mean of the last days of period 1 is given as used for baseline correction. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6.
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pone.0125264.g006: Catecholamines.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) plasma noradrenaline and (B) adrenaline. In experimental period 1 (P1) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red lines) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue lines) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap, dashed lines) and again post-partum (pp, solid lines). All data given as mean ± SEM; for P1 the mean of the last days of period 1 is given as used for baseline correction. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6.

Mentions: Only in the ap stage, noradrenaline concentrations were increased due to heat stress conditions, whereas feed restriction alone lowered noradrenaline plasma concentrations (group: P < 0.05, Fig 6A, Table 3). In contrast, lactating cows exhibited marked reactions in adrenaline concentrations: While plasma adrenaline increased in HSpp cows, it was almost unaffected in PFpp (group: P < 0.05). Late-gestating cows showed no significant adrenaline reaction in P2 (Fig 6B, Table 3).


Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

Lamp O, Derno M, Otten W, Mielenz M, Nürnberg G, Kuhla B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Catecholamines.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) plasma noradrenaline and (B) adrenaline. In experimental period 1 (P1) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red lines) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue lines) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap, dashed lines) and again post-partum (pp, solid lines). All data given as mean ± SEM; for P1 the mean of the last days of period 1 is given as used for baseline correction. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4418699&req=5

pone.0125264.g006: Catecholamines.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) plasma noradrenaline and (B) adrenaline. In experimental period 1 (P1) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red lines) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue lines) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap, dashed lines) and again post-partum (pp, solid lines). All data given as mean ± SEM; for P1 the mean of the last days of period 1 is given as used for baseline correction. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6.
Mentions: Only in the ap stage, noradrenaline concentrations were increased due to heat stress conditions, whereas feed restriction alone lowered noradrenaline plasma concentrations (group: P < 0.05, Fig 6A, Table 3). In contrast, lactating cows exhibited marked reactions in adrenaline concentrations: While plasma adrenaline increased in HSpp cows, it was almost unaffected in PFpp (group: P < 0.05). Late-gestating cows showed no significant adrenaline reaction in P2 (Fig 6B, Table 3).

Bottom Line: On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers.Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded.Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus