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Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

Lamp O, Derno M, Otten W, Mielenz M, Nürnberg G, Kuhla B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers.Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded.Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Indirect Calorimetry.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW), (B) net carbohydrate oxidation per metabolic weight (COX/mBW), (C) net fat oxidation per metabolic weight (FOX/mBW), (D) COX/FOX ratio. In experimental period 1 (P1, black) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding (AL) for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap) and again post-partum (pp). Cows underwent a 24-hours indirect calorimetry analysis on day 5 of each period. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6; all data given as sums of continuous measurements over 24 hours on day 6 of each period; +P < 0.05 in Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for paired samples of the same group; there were no group differences between independent samples of the same reproductive stage and period according to the exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P > 0.05).
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pone.0125264.g004: Indirect Calorimetry.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW), (B) net carbohydrate oxidation per metabolic weight (COX/mBW), (C) net fat oxidation per metabolic weight (FOX/mBW), (D) COX/FOX ratio. In experimental period 1 (P1, black) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding (AL) for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap) and again post-partum (pp). Cows underwent a 24-hours indirect calorimetry analysis on day 5 of each period. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6; all data given as sums of continuous measurements over 24 hours on day 6 of each period; +P < 0.05 in Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for paired samples of the same group; there were no group differences between independent samples of the same reproductive stage and period according to the exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P > 0.05).

Mentions: Indirect calorimetry revealed that daily heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW) is reduced under PF as well as under HS conditions (P < 0.05, Fig 4A). In all groups except the HSap, this is paralleled by a reduction of COX/mBW from P1 to P2 (P < 0.05, Fig 4B). Simultaneously, FOX/mBW increased in PF during P2 ante and post-partum (P < 0.05), whereas FOX/mBW was not altered under high ambient temperatures (P > 0.05, Fig 4C). The COX/FOX ratio as an indicator of energy source preference was lowered from P1 to P2 in PF animals of both stages (P < 0.05), but remained constant under HS conditions (Fig 4D).


Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

Lamp O, Derno M, Otten W, Mielenz M, Nürnberg G, Kuhla B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Indirect Calorimetry.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW), (B) net carbohydrate oxidation per metabolic weight (COX/mBW), (C) net fat oxidation per metabolic weight (FOX/mBW), (D) COX/FOX ratio. In experimental period 1 (P1, black) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding (AL) for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap) and again post-partum (pp). Cows underwent a 24-hours indirect calorimetry analysis on day 5 of each period. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6; all data given as sums of continuous measurements over 24 hours on day 6 of each period; +P < 0.05 in Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for paired samples of the same group; there were no group differences between independent samples of the same reproductive stage and period according to the exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P > 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4418699&req=5

pone.0125264.g004: Indirect Calorimetry.Effect of heat stress (HS) and pair-feeding (PF) on (A) heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW), (B) net carbohydrate oxidation per metabolic weight (COX/mBW), (C) net fat oxidation per metabolic weight (FOX/mBW), (D) COX/FOX ratio. In experimental period 1 (P1, black) all animals were kept at thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 59.7) with ad-libitum feeding (AL) for six days. During period 2 (P2), HS cows (red) were heat-stressed (THI = 76.1), whereas PF cows (blue) were pair-fed in thermoneutrality (THI = 60.0) for six days, once ante partum (ap) and again post-partum (pp). Cows underwent a 24-hours indirect calorimetry analysis on day 5 of each period. Numbers of animals analyzed per group: HSap n = 7, PFap n = 6, HSpp n = 6, PFpp n = 6; all data given as sums of continuous measurements over 24 hours on day 6 of each period; +P < 0.05 in Wilcoxon signed rank sum test for paired samples of the same group; there were no group differences between independent samples of the same reproductive stage and period according to the exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (P > 0.05).
Mentions: Indirect calorimetry revealed that daily heat production per metabolic weight (HP/mBW) is reduced under PF as well as under HS conditions (P < 0.05, Fig 4A). In all groups except the HSap, this is paralleled by a reduction of COX/mBW from P1 to P2 (P < 0.05, Fig 4B). Simultaneously, FOX/mBW increased in PF during P2 ante and post-partum (P < 0.05), whereas FOX/mBW was not altered under high ambient temperatures (P > 0.05, Fig 4C). The COX/FOX ratio as an indicator of energy source preference was lowered from P1 to P2 in PF animals of both stages (P < 0.05), but remained constant under HS conditions (Fig 4D).

Bottom Line: On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers.Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded.Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Nutritional Physiology "Oskar Kellner", Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus