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Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

Jasmin C, Anas A, Nair S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials.We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97).The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Cochin, Kerala, 682018, India.

ABSTRACT
Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

No MeSH data available.


Rooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the clone library of the sponge C. cavernosa (green), H. pigmentifera (purple) and reef water (red).The numbers at the nodes are percentages indicating the levels of bootstrap support based on a neighbor joining analysis of 1,000 resampled data sets. Scale bar represents 10% estimated sequence divergence. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used as an out group. Numbers in bracket indicates the additional clones of the same OTU present in the library.
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pone.0123222.g005: Rooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the clone library of the sponge C. cavernosa (green), H. pigmentifera (purple) and reef water (red).The numbers at the nodes are percentages indicating the levels of bootstrap support based on a neighbor joining analysis of 1,000 resampled data sets. Scale bar represents 10% estimated sequence divergence. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used as an out group. Numbers in bracket indicates the additional clones of the same OTU present in the library.

Mentions: The phylogenetic tree of OTUs associated with C. cavernosa (Fig 5 and S2 Fig) showed that the Exiguobacterium sp is the most prominent OTU under the class Firmicutes. In Phylum Proteobacteria, γ class was more prominent with 67 clones, grouped into 6 OTUs. Among the γ- Proteobacteria, 59 clones showed close similarity to uncultured Pseudoalteromonas of marine origin. Five OTUs of Chloroflexi sp (11 clones) also were observed in C. cavernosa. Minor representations of Planctomycetes (1 OTU), Deferribacter (2 OTU), and Actinobacteria (1 OTU) were also found in the clone library of C. cavernosa. Clone library of bacteria associated with H. pigmentifera was represented by β-Proteobacteria (32 clones represented by single OTU), δ-Proteobacteria (22 clones represented by single OTU), Cyanobacteria (20 clones represented by 3 OTUs) and α —Proteobacteria (8 clones represented by 5 OTUs) (Fig 5). Minor representations of Firmicutes (2 clones represented by 2 OTUs), Actinobacteria (2 clones represented by 2 OTUs), Bacteroidetes (3 clones represented by 2 OTUs) and γ-Proteobacteria (4 clones represented by 3 OTUs) were also observed. The clone library of the reef water sample consisted of α-Proteobacteria (44 clones under 12 OTUs) and Bacteroidetes (22 clones under 7 OTUs). Cyanobacteria (6 clones under 1 OTU) and 5 OTUs each of γ-Proteobacteria (6 clones) and δ- Proteobacteria (5 clones) were also present. Minor representations of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and unclassified bacteria (single clone represented by single OTU) were also seen.


Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

Jasmin C, Anas A, Nair S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Rooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the clone library of the sponge C. cavernosa (green), H. pigmentifera (purple) and reef water (red).The numbers at the nodes are percentages indicating the levels of bootstrap support based on a neighbor joining analysis of 1,000 resampled data sets. Scale bar represents 10% estimated sequence divergence. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used as an out group. Numbers in bracket indicates the additional clones of the same OTU present in the library.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4418615&req=5

pone.0123222.g005: Rooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the clone library of the sponge C. cavernosa (green), H. pigmentifera (purple) and reef water (red).The numbers at the nodes are percentages indicating the levels of bootstrap support based on a neighbor joining analysis of 1,000 resampled data sets. Scale bar represents 10% estimated sequence divergence. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used as an out group. Numbers in bracket indicates the additional clones of the same OTU present in the library.
Mentions: The phylogenetic tree of OTUs associated with C. cavernosa (Fig 5 and S2 Fig) showed that the Exiguobacterium sp is the most prominent OTU under the class Firmicutes. In Phylum Proteobacteria, γ class was more prominent with 67 clones, grouped into 6 OTUs. Among the γ- Proteobacteria, 59 clones showed close similarity to uncultured Pseudoalteromonas of marine origin. Five OTUs of Chloroflexi sp (11 clones) also were observed in C. cavernosa. Minor representations of Planctomycetes (1 OTU), Deferribacter (2 OTU), and Actinobacteria (1 OTU) were also found in the clone library of C. cavernosa. Clone library of bacteria associated with H. pigmentifera was represented by β-Proteobacteria (32 clones represented by single OTU), δ-Proteobacteria (22 clones represented by single OTU), Cyanobacteria (20 clones represented by 3 OTUs) and α —Proteobacteria (8 clones represented by 5 OTUs) (Fig 5). Minor representations of Firmicutes (2 clones represented by 2 OTUs), Actinobacteria (2 clones represented by 2 OTUs), Bacteroidetes (3 clones represented by 2 OTUs) and γ-Proteobacteria (4 clones represented by 3 OTUs) were also observed. The clone library of the reef water sample consisted of α-Proteobacteria (44 clones under 12 OTUs) and Bacteroidetes (22 clones under 7 OTUs). Cyanobacteria (6 clones under 1 OTU) and 5 OTUs each of γ-Proteobacteria (6 clones) and δ- Proteobacteria (5 clones) were also present. Minor representations of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and unclassified bacteria (single clone represented by single OTU) were also seen.

Bottom Line: Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials.We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97).The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Cochin, Kerala, 682018, India.

ABSTRACT
Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

No MeSH data available.