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Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

Jasmin C, Anas A, Nair S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials.We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97).The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Cochin, Kerala, 682018, India.

ABSTRACT
Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

No MeSH data available.


Dendrogram of cluster analysis showing similarities in percent of OTUs of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sponge associated microorganisms and reef water.
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pone.0123222.g003: Dendrogram of cluster analysis showing similarities in percent of OTUs of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sponge associated microorganisms and reef water.

Mentions: The dissimilarity between the bacterial communities of C. cavernosa and reef water was evident in the cluster analysis of OTUs (Fig 3). Bacterial diversity in H. pigmentifera was more similar to that of reef water with a similarity of more than 50%, while the bacterial diversity in C. cavernosa formed a different cluster. The Unifrac analysis showed that the differences in diversity of bacteria between C. cavernosa and reef water were statistically significant (p<0.001), while the differences between H. pigmentifera and water were not significant. PCA ordination based on bacterial community structure in different samples showed that C. cavernosa and H. pigmentifera were influenced by different bacterial communities and these were different from that of the reef water (Fig 4). PCA ordination plot showed that the microbial community structure of C. cavernosa was positively influenced by Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria while in H. pigmentifera it was Cyanobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and unclassified bacteria. In the reef water the microbial community was influenced by Bacteroidetes and α-Proteobacteria.


Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

Jasmin C, Anas A, Nair S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Dendrogram of cluster analysis showing similarities in percent of OTUs of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sponge associated microorganisms and reef water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4418615&req=5

pone.0123222.g003: Dendrogram of cluster analysis showing similarities in percent of OTUs of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sponge associated microorganisms and reef water.
Mentions: The dissimilarity between the bacterial communities of C. cavernosa and reef water was evident in the cluster analysis of OTUs (Fig 3). Bacterial diversity in H. pigmentifera was more similar to that of reef water with a similarity of more than 50%, while the bacterial diversity in C. cavernosa formed a different cluster. The Unifrac analysis showed that the differences in diversity of bacteria between C. cavernosa and reef water were statistically significant (p<0.001), while the differences between H. pigmentifera and water were not significant. PCA ordination based on bacterial community structure in different samples showed that C. cavernosa and H. pigmentifera were influenced by different bacterial communities and these were different from that of the reef water (Fig 4). PCA ordination plot showed that the microbial community structure of C. cavernosa was positively influenced by Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria while in H. pigmentifera it was Cyanobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and unclassified bacteria. In the reef water the microbial community was influenced by Bacteroidetes and α-Proteobacteria.

Bottom Line: Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials.We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97).The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Cochin, Kerala, 682018, India.

ABSTRACT
Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07) compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

No MeSH data available.