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An experimental method to study emissions from heated tobacco between 100-200°C.

Forster M, Liu C, Duke MG, McAdam KG, Proctor CJ - Chem Cent J (2015)

Bottom Line: Some studies have shown that heating tobacco to temperatures below pyrolysis and combustion temperatures has the potential to reduce or eliminate some toxicants found in cigarette smoke.These results demonstrate the practical utility of this tool to study low-temperature toxicant formation and emission from heated tobacco.Between 100 to 200°C, nicotine and some cigarette smoke compounds were released as a result of evaporative transfer or initial thermal decomposition from the tobacco blend.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GR&D Centre, British American Tobacco, Regents Park Road, Southampton, SO15 8TL UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cigarette smoke emissions are mainly produced by distillation, pyrolysis and combustion reactions when the tobacco is burnt. Some studies have shown that heating tobacco to temperatures below pyrolysis and combustion temperatures has the potential to reduce or eliminate some toxicants found in cigarette smoke. In this study, we designed a bench-top tube furnace that heats tobacco between 100-200°C and systematically studied the effects of heating temperatures on selected gas phase and aerosol phase compounds using an ISO machine-smoking protocol.

Results: Among a list of target chemical compounds, seven toxicants (nicotine, carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, NNN and NNK) were quantifiable but not at all temperatures examined. The levels of the compounds generally displayed an increasing trend with increasing temperatures. The observed carbon monoxide and aldehydes represented the initial thermal breakdown products from the tobacco constituents. Water was the largest measured component in the total aerosol phase collected and appeared to be mainly released by evaporation; nicotine release characteristics were consistent with bond breaking and evaporation. Quantifiable levels of NNK and NNN were thought to be the result of evaporative transfer from the tobacco blend.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate the practical utility of this tool to study low-temperature toxicant formation and emission from heated tobacco. Between 100 to 200°C, nicotine and some cigarette smoke compounds were released as a result of evaporative transfer or initial thermal decomposition from the tobacco blend.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Arrhenius plots for the six analytes quantified in the heated tobacco aerosol.
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Fig3: Arrhenius plots for the six analytes quantified in the heated tobacco aerosol.

Mentions: In Figure 3, the yields of six analytes that were quantifiable under the full or majority of the temperatures were analysed using a pseudo-Arrhenius plot; the objective was to see whether their release could be empirically modelled to differentiate their release mechanisms. This is empirical because the tobacco rod could not be heated to the target temperature instantaneously when it was introduced into the furnace. The emission values plotted in Figure 3 were the results of accumulated release from a range of temperatures leading up to the set temperature. Hence this pseudo-Arrhenius approach cannot be used to calculate accurate kinetic parameters for the generation of these compounds, but comparison of relative trends between the compounds observed are valid. Reasonable linearity was seen in the pseudo-Arrhenius plots for acetaldehyde, nicotine, water and NFDPM values. As Table 1 shows, the measured TPM consisted of a large portion of water and a significant level of nicotine above 160°C. Thus, the calculated NFDPM captured the remaining condensed phase matter in the aerosol excluding these two compounds. A full analysis of the chemical composition of this condensed phase matter (NFDPM) is beyond the objective of this study.Figure 3


An experimental method to study emissions from heated tobacco between 100-200°C.

Forster M, Liu C, Duke MG, McAdam KG, Proctor CJ - Chem Cent J (2015)

Arrhenius plots for the six analytes quantified in the heated tobacco aerosol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4418098&req=5

Fig3: Arrhenius plots for the six analytes quantified in the heated tobacco aerosol.
Mentions: In Figure 3, the yields of six analytes that were quantifiable under the full or majority of the temperatures were analysed using a pseudo-Arrhenius plot; the objective was to see whether their release could be empirically modelled to differentiate their release mechanisms. This is empirical because the tobacco rod could not be heated to the target temperature instantaneously when it was introduced into the furnace. The emission values plotted in Figure 3 were the results of accumulated release from a range of temperatures leading up to the set temperature. Hence this pseudo-Arrhenius approach cannot be used to calculate accurate kinetic parameters for the generation of these compounds, but comparison of relative trends between the compounds observed are valid. Reasonable linearity was seen in the pseudo-Arrhenius plots for acetaldehyde, nicotine, water and NFDPM values. As Table 1 shows, the measured TPM consisted of a large portion of water and a significant level of nicotine above 160°C. Thus, the calculated NFDPM captured the remaining condensed phase matter in the aerosol excluding these two compounds. A full analysis of the chemical composition of this condensed phase matter (NFDPM) is beyond the objective of this study.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Some studies have shown that heating tobacco to temperatures below pyrolysis and combustion temperatures has the potential to reduce or eliminate some toxicants found in cigarette smoke.These results demonstrate the practical utility of this tool to study low-temperature toxicant formation and emission from heated tobacco.Between 100 to 200°C, nicotine and some cigarette smoke compounds were released as a result of evaporative transfer or initial thermal decomposition from the tobacco blend.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GR&D Centre, British American Tobacco, Regents Park Road, Southampton, SO15 8TL UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cigarette smoke emissions are mainly produced by distillation, pyrolysis and combustion reactions when the tobacco is burnt. Some studies have shown that heating tobacco to temperatures below pyrolysis and combustion temperatures has the potential to reduce or eliminate some toxicants found in cigarette smoke. In this study, we designed a bench-top tube furnace that heats tobacco between 100-200°C and systematically studied the effects of heating temperatures on selected gas phase and aerosol phase compounds using an ISO machine-smoking protocol.

Results: Among a list of target chemical compounds, seven toxicants (nicotine, carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, NNN and NNK) were quantifiable but not at all temperatures examined. The levels of the compounds generally displayed an increasing trend with increasing temperatures. The observed carbon monoxide and aldehydes represented the initial thermal breakdown products from the tobacco constituents. Water was the largest measured component in the total aerosol phase collected and appeared to be mainly released by evaporation; nicotine release characteristics were consistent with bond breaking and evaporation. Quantifiable levels of NNK and NNN were thought to be the result of evaporative transfer from the tobacco blend.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate the practical utility of this tool to study low-temperature toxicant formation and emission from heated tobacco. Between 100 to 200°C, nicotine and some cigarette smoke compounds were released as a result of evaporative transfer or initial thermal decomposition from the tobacco blend.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus