Limits...
The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

Steiner U, Kucht SH, Ahimsa-Müller MA, Grundmann N, Li SM, Drewke C, Leistner E - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae.Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula.Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Nutzpflanzenwissenschaften und Ressourcenschutz, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 9, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. u-steiner@uni-bonn.de.

ABSTRACT
Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

Show MeSH
Multi-ion HPLC/MS/MS chromatography of the alkaloid fraction of leaves at different developmental stages of the Periglandula/Ipomoea (A) symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), open buds (II), medium sized leaves (III), fully expanded leaves (IV). Alkaloids are colour coded: chanoclavine-I (blue, 6 min); lysergic acid amide (green,11.0 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 16.5 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min); isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min), ergonovine (grey, 21 min); (B) Periglandula/Turbina symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), medium sized leaves (II), fully expanded leaves (III). Alkaloids are colour coded: lysergic acid amide (green, 10.5 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 17.0 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min), isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min); ergonovine (grey, 21.5 min), elymoclavine (light blue, 15.5 min), agroclavine (margenta, 21 min). In each case, 9 g (wet weight) of leaf material was analyzed under identical conditions. The identity of alkaloids was also checked by comparison with authentic compounds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417971&req=5

toxins-07-01355-f003: Multi-ion HPLC/MS/MS chromatography of the alkaloid fraction of leaves at different developmental stages of the Periglandula/Ipomoea (A) symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), open buds (II), medium sized leaves (III), fully expanded leaves (IV). Alkaloids are colour coded: chanoclavine-I (blue, 6 min); lysergic acid amide (green,11.0 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 16.5 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min); isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min), ergonovine (grey, 21 min); (B) Periglandula/Turbina symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), medium sized leaves (II), fully expanded leaves (III). Alkaloids are colour coded: lysergic acid amide (green, 10.5 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 17.0 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min), isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min); ergonovine (grey, 21.5 min), elymoclavine (light blue, 15.5 min), agroclavine (margenta, 21 min). In each case, 9 g (wet weight) of leaf material was analyzed under identical conditions. The identity of alkaloids was also checked by comparison with authentic compounds.

Mentions: The identity of the ergot alkaloids were confirmed by using a HPLC/MS/MS system and the quantity determined as dependant on the leaf development. The result is shown in Figure 3 in the form of multi-ion chromatograms. Apparently, alkaloid biosynthesis takes place at a very early time of leaf development. Quantitative estimation of alkaloids (Figure 3 and Table 1) reveals that, on a fresh weight basis, leaf buds contain the highest amount of ergot alkaloids that declines by leaf expansion. In contrast, the composition of the alkaloidal fraction does not change with the age of the developing leaf (Figure 3).


The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

Steiner U, Kucht SH, Ahimsa-Müller MA, Grundmann N, Li SM, Drewke C, Leistner E - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Multi-ion HPLC/MS/MS chromatography of the alkaloid fraction of leaves at different developmental stages of the Periglandula/Ipomoea (A) symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), open buds (II), medium sized leaves (III), fully expanded leaves (IV). Alkaloids are colour coded: chanoclavine-I (blue, 6 min); lysergic acid amide (green,11.0 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 16.5 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min); isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min), ergonovine (grey, 21 min); (B) Periglandula/Turbina symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), medium sized leaves (II), fully expanded leaves (III). Alkaloids are colour coded: lysergic acid amide (green, 10.5 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 17.0 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min), isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min); ergonovine (grey, 21.5 min), elymoclavine (light blue, 15.5 min), agroclavine (margenta, 21 min). In each case, 9 g (wet weight) of leaf material was analyzed under identical conditions. The identity of alkaloids was also checked by comparison with authentic compounds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417971&req=5

toxins-07-01355-f003: Multi-ion HPLC/MS/MS chromatography of the alkaloid fraction of leaves at different developmental stages of the Periglandula/Ipomoea (A) symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), open buds (II), medium sized leaves (III), fully expanded leaves (IV). Alkaloids are colour coded: chanoclavine-I (blue, 6 min); lysergic acid amide (green,11.0 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 16.5 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min); isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min), ergonovine (grey, 21 min); (B) Periglandula/Turbina symbiotum, i.e., leaf buds (I), medium sized leaves (II), fully expanded leaves (III). Alkaloids are colour coded: lysergic acid amide (green, 10.5 min); isolysergic acid amide (green, 17.0 min); lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 13.0 min), isolysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (red, 14.5 min); ergonovine (grey, 21.5 min), elymoclavine (light blue, 15.5 min), agroclavine (margenta, 21 min). In each case, 9 g (wet weight) of leaf material was analyzed under identical conditions. The identity of alkaloids was also checked by comparison with authentic compounds.
Mentions: The identity of the ergot alkaloids were confirmed by using a HPLC/MS/MS system and the quantity determined as dependant on the leaf development. The result is shown in Figure 3 in the form of multi-ion chromatograms. Apparently, alkaloid biosynthesis takes place at a very early time of leaf development. Quantitative estimation of alkaloids (Figure 3 and Table 1) reveals that, on a fresh weight basis, leaf buds contain the highest amount of ergot alkaloids that declines by leaf expansion. In contrast, the composition of the alkaloidal fraction does not change with the age of the developing leaf (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae.Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula.Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Nutzpflanzenwissenschaften und Ressourcenschutz, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 9, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. u-steiner@uni-bonn.de.

ABSTRACT
Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

Show MeSH