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Dose-dependent effects on sphingoid bases and cytokines in chickens fed diets prepared with fusarium verticillioides culture material containing fumonisins.

Grenier B, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Caha S, Moll WD, Schatzmayr G, Applegate TJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg.In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry.Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. bertrand.grenier@biomin.net.

ABSTRACT
In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to disruption of sphingolipid metabolism). Male broilers were assigned to 6 diets (6 cages/diet; 6 birds/cage) from hatch to 20 days containing 0.4, 5.6, 11.3, 17.5, 47.8, or 104.8 mg FB/kg diet. Exposure to FB altered the Sa/So ratio in all tissues analyzed, albeit to varying extents. Linear dose-responses were observed in the kidney, jejunum and cecum. The liver and the ileum were very sensitive and data fit a cubic and quadratic polynomial model, respectively. Gene expression in the small intestine revealed low but significant upregulations of cytokines involved in the pro-inflammatory, Th1/Th17 and Treg responses, especially at 10 days of age. Interestingly, the cecal tonsils exhibited a biphasic response. Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg. In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry. Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed.

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Overview of the biphasic response on cytokine expression in cecal tonsils (for diets containing 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg). Expression of cytokines related to inflammation, Treg response, and Th17 & Th1 responses at days 10 and 20. For each cytokine, the first three bars in white (□) correspond to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 10, and the following three bars in black (■) corresponds to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 20. The same order was used for each cytokine. The concentrations of 5.6 and 104.8 mg/kg had induced slight effects and were therefore omitted. Values are mean ± SEM for six animals. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01 compared to control group.
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toxins-07-01253-f003: Overview of the biphasic response on cytokine expression in cecal tonsils (for diets containing 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg). Expression of cytokines related to inflammation, Treg response, and Th17 & Th1 responses at days 10 and 20. For each cytokine, the first three bars in white (□) correspond to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 10, and the following three bars in black (■) corresponds to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 20. The same order was used for each cytokine. The concentrations of 5.6 and 104.8 mg/kg had induced slight effects and were therefore omitted. Values are mean ± SEM for six animals. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01 compared to control group.

Mentions: The mRNA level of nine proteins related to immunity (mostly cytokines) was evaluated at 10 and 20 days of age in the small intestine (Table 2), namely the mid-jejunum and the mid-ileum, and in the cecal tonsils, belonging to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In contrast to the results of sphingolipids, no linear relationship was observed for any of the immune factors. However, ingestion of FB did significantly modulate the gene expression along the GIT (Table 2, Figure 2 and Figure 3). Based on Table 2, we established heat maps to exemplify our findings in the small intestine (Figure 2). In Figure 2, the main heat map refers to the type of modulation observed in the small intestine (jejunum and ileum).


Dose-dependent effects on sphingoid bases and cytokines in chickens fed diets prepared with fusarium verticillioides culture material containing fumonisins.

Grenier B, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Caha S, Moll WD, Schatzmayr G, Applegate TJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Overview of the biphasic response on cytokine expression in cecal tonsils (for diets containing 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg). Expression of cytokines related to inflammation, Treg response, and Th17 & Th1 responses at days 10 and 20. For each cytokine, the first three bars in white (□) correspond to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 10, and the following three bars in black (■) corresponds to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 20. The same order was used for each cytokine. The concentrations of 5.6 and 104.8 mg/kg had induced slight effects and were therefore omitted. Values are mean ± SEM for six animals. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01 compared to control group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417966&req=5

toxins-07-01253-f003: Overview of the biphasic response on cytokine expression in cecal tonsils (for diets containing 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg). Expression of cytokines related to inflammation, Treg response, and Th17 & Th1 responses at days 10 and 20. For each cytokine, the first three bars in white (□) correspond to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 10, and the following three bars in black (■) corresponds to 11.3, 17.5 and 47.8 mg FB/kg at day 20. The same order was used for each cytokine. The concentrations of 5.6 and 104.8 mg/kg had induced slight effects and were therefore omitted. Values are mean ± SEM for six animals. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01 compared to control group.
Mentions: The mRNA level of nine proteins related to immunity (mostly cytokines) was evaluated at 10 and 20 days of age in the small intestine (Table 2), namely the mid-jejunum and the mid-ileum, and in the cecal tonsils, belonging to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In contrast to the results of sphingolipids, no linear relationship was observed for any of the immune factors. However, ingestion of FB did significantly modulate the gene expression along the GIT (Table 2, Figure 2 and Figure 3). Based on Table 2, we established heat maps to exemplify our findings in the small intestine (Figure 2). In Figure 2, the main heat map refers to the type of modulation observed in the small intestine (jejunum and ileum).

Bottom Line: Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg.In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry.Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. bertrand.grenier@biomin.net.

ABSTRACT
In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to disruption of sphingolipid metabolism). Male broilers were assigned to 6 diets (6 cages/diet; 6 birds/cage) from hatch to 20 days containing 0.4, 5.6, 11.3, 17.5, 47.8, or 104.8 mg FB/kg diet. Exposure to FB altered the Sa/So ratio in all tissues analyzed, albeit to varying extents. Linear dose-responses were observed in the kidney, jejunum and cecum. The liver and the ileum were very sensitive and data fit a cubic and quadratic polynomial model, respectively. Gene expression in the small intestine revealed low but significant upregulations of cytokines involved in the pro-inflammatory, Th1/Th17 and Treg responses, especially at 10 days of age. Interestingly, the cecal tonsils exhibited a biphasic response. Unlike the sphingolipid analysis, the effects seen on gene expression were not dose dependent, even showing more effects when birds were exposed to 11.3 mg FB/kg. In conclusion, this is the first report on the disruption of the sphingolipid metabolism by FB in the GIT of poultry. Further studies are needed to reach conclusions on the biological meaning of the immunomodulation observed in the GIT, but the susceptibility of chickens to intestinal pathogens when exposed to FB, at doses lower than those that would cause overt clinical symptoms, should be addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus