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Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

Trainer VL, Hardy FJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State.Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels.Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. vera.l.trainer@noaa.gov.

ABSTRACT
The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

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Washington lakes sampled for freshwater biotoxins (shown here are January 2014 data from [8]). Site names mentioned in the text are numbered: 1. Anderson Lake, 2. Waughop Lake, 3. American Lake, 4. Clear Lake, 5. Rufus Woods Lake, 6. Potholes Reservoir. Due to the size of the figure, sampled lakes are not visible.
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toxins-07-01206-f002: Washington lakes sampled for freshwater biotoxins (shown here are January 2014 data from [8]). Site names mentioned in the text are numbered: 1. Anderson Lake, 2. Waughop Lake, 3. American Lake, 4. Clear Lake, 5. Rufus Woods Lake, 6. Potholes Reservoir. Due to the size of the figure, sampled lakes are not visible.

Mentions: In 2009, DOH and partners began a five-year cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand efforts to address HABs in Washington. Part of this project involved monitoring 30 Puget Sound lowland lakes for microcystins and anatoxin-a, and by 2010 the project added cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin (Figure 2). Of the four cyanotoxins, microcystins were most frequently observed in the region, followed by anatoxin-a. Cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin were each observed in only two Puget Sound lakes during the 2009 and 2010 sampling seasons of the 30-lake monitoring project.


Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

Trainer VL, Hardy FJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Washington lakes sampled for freshwater biotoxins (shown here are January 2014 data from [8]). Site names mentioned in the text are numbered: 1. Anderson Lake, 2. Waughop Lake, 3. American Lake, 4. Clear Lake, 5. Rufus Woods Lake, 6. Potholes Reservoir. Due to the size of the figure, sampled lakes are not visible.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417964&req=5

toxins-07-01206-f002: Washington lakes sampled for freshwater biotoxins (shown here are January 2014 data from [8]). Site names mentioned in the text are numbered: 1. Anderson Lake, 2. Waughop Lake, 3. American Lake, 4. Clear Lake, 5. Rufus Woods Lake, 6. Potholes Reservoir. Due to the size of the figure, sampled lakes are not visible.
Mentions: In 2009, DOH and partners began a five-year cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand efforts to address HABs in Washington. Part of this project involved monitoring 30 Puget Sound lowland lakes for microcystins and anatoxin-a, and by 2010 the project added cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin (Figure 2). Of the four cyanotoxins, microcystins were most frequently observed in the region, followed by anatoxin-a. Cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin were each observed in only two Puget Sound lakes during the 2009 and 2010 sampling seasons of the 30-lake monitoring project.

Bottom Line: The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State.Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels.Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. vera.l.trainer@noaa.gov.

ABSTRACT
The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus