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Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

Trainer VL, Hardy FJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State.Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels.Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. vera.l.trainer@noaa.gov.

ABSTRACT
The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

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Phytoplankton monitoring locations and DOH shellfish biotoxin management sites in 2014. A. SoundToxins monitoring sites (black circles), including locations where Dinophysis was quantified as common or greater (red circles), B. DOH shellfish biotoxin monitoring sites (black circles) include locations where diarrhetic shellfish toxins were at or above the regulatory level of 16 μg/kg (red circles). Routinely monitored, core ORHAB sites are marked with X.
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toxins-07-01206-f001: Phytoplankton monitoring locations and DOH shellfish biotoxin management sites in 2014. A. SoundToxins monitoring sites (black circles), including locations where Dinophysis was quantified as common or greater (red circles), B. DOH shellfish biotoxin monitoring sites (black circles) include locations where diarrhetic shellfish toxins were at or above the regulatory level of 16 μg/kg (red circles). Routinely monitored, core ORHAB sites are marked with X.

Mentions: Closures of recreational shellfish harvesting due to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been imposed in Washington State since 1942 when three Native American fatalities occurred in the town of Sekiu on the Strait of Juan de Fuca [13]. At that time, the Washington Department of Fisheries imposed annual closures for all shellfish harvest except razor clams from 1 April to 31 October in the area west of Dungeness Spit (near Port Angeles, WA, Figure 1) including the Pacific coast to the Columbia River [30]. The shellfish surveillance program for PSTs was temporarily stopped in 1946 when it was believed that the seasonal blanket closure was adequately protecting public health. However, an outbreak of PSP on eastern Vancouver Island in 1957 [31] resulted in a mandatory monitoring program for PSTs in all commercial shellfish in Washington. Illnesses due to PSP were not reported in Puget Sound prior to 1978, but widespread toxicity occurred that year throughout much of the central basin [30]. High numbers of illnesses include 14 in 1978, nine in 2000, and 7 in 2012, all in Puget Sound [32,33,34] (Table 2). Toxins causing PSP are now found in most areas of Puget Sound after a massive event in 1978 that caused spreading into the main basin, then further migration into the southernmost reaches of the Sound in the 1980s and 1990s. Multiple closures due to PSTs occur annually at many locations throughout Puget Sound.


Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

Trainer VL, Hardy FJ - Toxins (Basel) (2015)

Phytoplankton monitoring locations and DOH shellfish biotoxin management sites in 2014. A. SoundToxins monitoring sites (black circles), including locations where Dinophysis was quantified as common or greater (red circles), B. DOH shellfish biotoxin monitoring sites (black circles) include locations where diarrhetic shellfish toxins were at or above the regulatory level of 16 μg/kg (red circles). Routinely monitored, core ORHAB sites are marked with X.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4417964&req=5

toxins-07-01206-f001: Phytoplankton monitoring locations and DOH shellfish biotoxin management sites in 2014. A. SoundToxins monitoring sites (black circles), including locations where Dinophysis was quantified as common or greater (red circles), B. DOH shellfish biotoxin monitoring sites (black circles) include locations where diarrhetic shellfish toxins were at or above the regulatory level of 16 μg/kg (red circles). Routinely monitored, core ORHAB sites are marked with X.
Mentions: Closures of recreational shellfish harvesting due to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been imposed in Washington State since 1942 when three Native American fatalities occurred in the town of Sekiu on the Strait of Juan de Fuca [13]. At that time, the Washington Department of Fisheries imposed annual closures for all shellfish harvest except razor clams from 1 April to 31 October in the area west of Dungeness Spit (near Port Angeles, WA, Figure 1) including the Pacific coast to the Columbia River [30]. The shellfish surveillance program for PSTs was temporarily stopped in 1946 when it was believed that the seasonal blanket closure was adequately protecting public health. However, an outbreak of PSP on eastern Vancouver Island in 1957 [31] resulted in a mandatory monitoring program for PSTs in all commercial shellfish in Washington. Illnesses due to PSP were not reported in Puget Sound prior to 1978, but widespread toxicity occurred that year throughout much of the central basin [30]. High numbers of illnesses include 14 in 1978, nine in 2000, and 7 in 2012, all in Puget Sound [32,33,34] (Table 2). Toxins causing PSP are now found in most areas of Puget Sound after a massive event in 1978 that caused spreading into the main basin, then further migration into the southernmost reaches of the Sound in the 1980s and 1990s. Multiple closures due to PSTs occur annually at many locations throughout Puget Sound.

Bottom Line: The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State.Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels.Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: NOAA, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Biotoxins Program, Seattle, WA 98112, USA. vera.l.trainer@noaa.gov.

ABSTRACT
The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus